About This Chapter
Basic Chemistry & Biochemistry - Chapter Summary
Feel confident in your knowledge of basic chemistry and biochemistry with help from this chapter's bite-sized lessons. Topics covered in this chapter include covalent, ionic, polar covalent and hydrogen chemical bonds, among other related concepts. After completing this chapter, you will be ready to:
- Explain the function of enzymes
- Exhibit knowledge of enzymatic reactions
- List and discuss properties of water
- Explain the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
- Define and share examples of hydrolysis and dehydration
The lessons in this chapter are available as short videos that average 8 minutes each and full transcripts you can print or read online. Feel free to use one or both lesson formats to build your knowledge of basic chemistry and biochemistry your way! Any questions that arise while studying this chapter can be submitted to our experts via the Dashboard. When you're ready, check your comprehension of the lessons by taking mini quizzes and a broader chapter exam.
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
5. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
6. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
7. Properties of Water
Why does ice float? Why can water rise on its own against gravity in a small tube? Find out how these mysterious properties of water can be explained by hydrogen bonds.
8. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
9. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
10. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
11. Nucleic Acids: Function & Structure
In this lesson, we will explore what nucleic acids are, including the oozing bodily fluid they were first found in, what makes them unique from other types of biological molecules, and why DNA is called the 'blueprint of life.'
12. Hydrolysis and Dehydration: Definitions & Examples
Water is an important component of cellular processes. Two of these processes, dehydration and hydrolysis, help your body build large molecules from small ones and break down large ones into usable components.
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Other chapters within the OSAT Biological Sciences (CEOE) (010): Study Guide & Practice course
- Scientific Inquiry Overview
- Scientific Inquiry Process
- Safety Procedures and Hazards in Scientific Research
- Cell Biology
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- Cell Cycle & Cell Division
- DNA, RNA & Gene Expression
- Types & Effects of Genetic Mutations
- Introduction to Genetic Engineering
- Classical & Molecular Genetics
- Mechanisms of Biological Evolution
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Characteristics & Organization of Organisms
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Plant Growth and Reproduction
- Animal Reproduction & Development
- Overview of Human Anatomy & Body Systems
- Biology: Diseases & Prevention
- Populations and Biological Communities
- Ecosystems and Biomes
- Biochemical Cycles
- Human Activity and the Biosphere