About This Chapter
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics - Chapter Summary
This chapter focuses on such topics as thermochemistry, free energy, energy transfer, electrochemistry and calorimetry to help you understand simple aspects of thermodynamics. Each lesson goes over calculations and laws relevant to these topics. Lessons provide helpful illustrations, examples and definitions to ensure your full understanding of the material covered in this chapter. After you have completed your review of this chapter, you should display the following abilities:
- Define and provide example of state functions in thermochemistry
- Apply equations to determine how much heat energy is transferred in a reaction
- Calculate enthalpy changes using Hess's Law
- Determine heat transfer and heat capacity
- Use calculations to predict the entropy of physical and chemical changes
- Predict a reaction's free energy
- Describe how free energy is related to enthalpy and entropy
- Relate information about free energy and cell potential energy
- Detail the relationship between the equilibrium constant and free energy
Our experienced chemistry instructors use simple language to break down complex topics and help you easily understand each thermodynamics lesson. After your review of a lesson, you can take the self-assessment quiz to determine what you have understood and what you might need to continue reviewing. Instructors can be contacted with questions should you need clarification of any material covered in these lessons.
1. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
2. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
3. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
4. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
5. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
6. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
7. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
8. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
9. The Relationship Between Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
In this lesson, we learn the important connection between free energy and the equilibrium constant. We will begin by considering systems under non-standard conditions to derive the relationship. We will see how to relate the free energy change to the extent of a chemical reaction.
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Other chapters within the SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide course
- Introduction to Chemistry & Matter
- Atomic Structure in Chemistry
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Processes
- Introduction to Chemical Bonds
- Properties of Liquids & Solids
- Gas Laws
- Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
- Overview of Stoichiometry
- Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- Equilibrium in Chemistry
- Reaction Rates in Chemistry
- SAT Chemistry Test Strategy
- SAT Subject Test Chemistry Flashcards