About This Chapter
Basic Genetic Principles - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll review short lessons that cover basic genetic principles. Using a simplified and entertaining teaching style, our expert science instructors can help you refresh your knowledge of heredity, Mendel's laws, the genetic code, the central dogma, genetic engineering, DNA replication and more. When you're finished working through the chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain basic concepts related to heredity, chromosomes and genetic traits
- Summarize Mendel's law of segregation and law of independent assortment
- Outline the basics of codon recognition
- Understand how DNA replicates
- Describe the process of protein synthesis in cells
- Define the concept of genetic engineering
You can work through the chapter at your own pace using any device that has access to the Internet. Included in the chapter are short quizzes and a comprehensive exam that go over essential genetic terms, concepts and principles. You can review these study resources at any time that fits your schedule, and if you have any questions, don't hesitate to reach out to our science experts online.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
3. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
4. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
5. How Does DNA Replicate?
In this lesson, we will learn why DNA replicates as well as how. We'll also learn about the rates of replication and how DNA proofreads itself. After watching the lesson, you can complete a short quiz to test your knowledge.
6. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
7. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the NES Middle Grades General Science (204): Practice & Study Guide course
- Introduction to Scientific Inquiry
- Historical Development of Scientific Laws & Theories
- Overview of Science & Society
- Intro to Matter
- Atomic Structure in Chemistry Basics
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Processes
- Intro to Chemical Bonds
- Overview of Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- Equilibrium in Chemistry Basics
- Reaction Rates in Chemistry
- Energy Forms and Transformations
- Electricity & Magnetism Basics
- Force, Mass & Motion
- Overview of Waves, Sound & Light
- Cell Characteristics, Organization & Processes
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis Basics
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Male Reproductive System
- Female Reproductive System
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Intro to the Origin & History of Life On Earth
- Biomes & Ecosystems
- Understanding Earth's Spheres & Internal Structure
- Time & Dating in Geology
- The Lithosphere
- Rocks & Minerals
- Weathering, Erosion & Wasting Basics
- Geological Forms
- Hydrosphere Properties & Characteristics
- Overview of Atmosphere, Weather & Climate
- Intro to the Solar System & the Universe
- NES Middle Grades General Science Flashcards