About This Chapter
Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
What is genetic engineering? How can we use the findings from such research? In this chapter, we will answer those questions. You'll learn about the concept of genetic engineering and study various techniques. Our lessons will introduce you to ideas that include DNA plasmids, recombinant DNA and restriction enzymes. You'll find out how genetic engineering has already benefited the field of medicine and discover future possibilities. Some of the other things you'll learn in this chapter include:
- What a DNA ladder is
- How gel electrophoresis is used
- The transformation of E. coli
- Interpreting research results
- DNA sequencing methods
|What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples||Discover the basics of genetic engineering and what it is used for.|
|What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering||Analyze DNA plasmid and why it is important in genetic engineering.|
|Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition||Examine restriction enzymes to see how they work.|
|How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA||Explore DNA ligase and how it is used to make recombinant DNA.|
|Ethidium Bromide vs. Loading Dye: Visualizing DNA||Study the difference in loading dye and ethidium bromide.|
|What is Agarose Gel Electrophoresis?||Find out how gel electrophoresis can be used to analyze DNA.|
|Gel Electrophoresis: Analyzing and Interpreting Results||Discover how to interpret the results of a gel electrophoresis run.|
|Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process and Genetic Engineering of E. coli||Analyze the basic principles of bacterial transformation.|
|Bacterial Transformation: Screening and Interpreting Experimental Results||Examine how experimental results of bacterial transformation are interpreted.|
|The Sanger Method of DNA Sequencing||Study the Sanger method.|
1. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
2. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering
DNA plasmids play an integral part in most genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn about key features of a plasmid, such as a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.
3. Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition
Restriction enzymes played a critical role in the advent of genetic engineering. In this lesson, you will learn what role restriction enzymes play in creating recombinant DNA.
4. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
DNA ligase makes recombinant DNA technology possible. In this lesson, you will learn how new versions of genes can be designed for experiments in novel host organisms using DNA ligase.
5. What is Agarose Gel Electrophoresis?
Agarose gel electrophoresis plays a key role in genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn what agarose is and how electrophoresis works. You'll also discover the use of agarose in this procedure.
6. Ethidium Bromide, Loading Buffer & DNA Ladder: Visualizing DNA and Determining its Size
In this lesson, you will learn about the role that ethidium bromide, loading buffers, and DNA ladders play in visualizing DNA and determining the size of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis.
7. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Equipment & Procedure
This lesson will review the concepts and mechanisms of agarose gel electrophoresis. It will also summarize the equipment needed to perform the procedure for DNA analysis.
8. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Results Analysis
Gel electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA restriction digest and ligation experiments. In this lesson, you will learn how to use a DNA ladder to interpret experimental results.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process and Genetic Engineering of E. coli
How can a plasmid be inserted into a bacterial cell? How can transformed bacteria carrying a recombinant plasmid be distinguished from untransformed counterparts? These questions and more will be answered in this lesson.
10. Bacterial Transformation: Antibiotic Selection and Positive & Negative Controls
The use of antibiotic selection and positive and negative controls are important elements of interpreting data from a bacterial transformation. In this lesson, you will learn how antibiotic selection results in colony formation and how controls help pinpoint the cause of experimental problems.
11. PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biotechnology technique that is used to amplify pieces of DNA. In this lesson, you will learn about five ingredients necessary to perform PCR: template DNA, nucleotides, primers, buffer and Taq polymerase.
12. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this lesson, you will learn about the steps required to amplify DNA during PCR. The lesson will explain the role template DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase and PCR buffer play in the denaturation, annealing and extension steps of PCR.
13. The Sanger Method of DNA Sequencing
The ability to determine the DNA sequence of an individual is a powerful tool for paternity questions and criminal investigations, among other uses. This lesson will describe one laboratory method that can be used to sequence DNA.
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