About This Chapter
Basics of Physical & Earth Sciences - Chapter Summary
Gain greater insight into the basics of physical and earth sciences using this chapter's engaging lessons. Ensure that you have a complete understanding of topics like the water cycle, states of matter and magnetic force. By the end of this chapter, you will be ready to do the following:
- List and describe the physical and chemical properties of matter
- Define and list types of simple machines
- Share the meaning of sound and factors that affect its speed
- Describe different kinds of light and discuss why it's called radiation
- Provide the definition and list different types of energy
- Explain the meaning and major features of landforms
- Discuss the three major rock groups
- Identify and describe different types of weather
Each lesson in this chapter is available as a short video that averages 8 minutes or a full transcript you can read as a text online or print to review at a later time. Below each video is a clickable timeline you can use to quickly jump to key topics within the lesson. If you'd like to test your knowledge of concepts covered in the lessons, feel free to take accompanying multiple-choice quizzes. Our practice exam ensures you fully comprehend the basics of physical and earth sciences before taking your test.
1. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
2. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
3. Newton's Laws of Force & Motion
Newton's laws of motion explain why we observe the motion we do in the world around us -- they explain how forces work. In this lesson, we take a look at each of Newton's laws one by one.
4. The Law of Universal Gravitation: Definition, Importance & Examples
Gravity is what pulls us toward Earth, but it's also what pulls Earth toward us. This is explained by the law of universal gravitation, which describes how all objects in the universe have this important force between them.
5. About the Moon: Phases & Facts
Have you ever wondered if the Moon is made of cheese? Learn the truth about the world's most famous satellite in this lesson packed with basic stats, orbit info, phase details, and other fun facts.
6. Stars: Definition & Facts
Before you name a star after someone, get the facts! Stars are a lot more than pretty lights up in the sky. Read on for a basic dose of nuclear fusion, main sequence stars, red giants, and more.
7. What are Planets? - Facts & Definition
In this lesson, you'll learn the official definition of a planet, how planets are formed, and about the two types of planets found in our solar system: terrestrial planets and gas giants.
8. The Sun: Structure & Life Cycle
Learn some secrets of our star, the Sun, and discover what's inside of it. Learn about the history and future of the Sun, then test your new knowledge with a quiz!
9. The Role & Importance of the Sun
In this lesson, you're going to learn about the sun's importance to the earth. First you'll learn how the sun plays a part in the formation of fossil fuels. Then you'll find out what it has to do with the water cycle, wind, and waves.
10. Interactions in the Sun-Earth-Moon System
Learn how the sun, earth, and moon interact with each other to create tides, phases, eclipses, seasons, solar winds, and precession. Take a quiz and see how much you've picked up.
11. Technologies Used to Explore Space
Orbiters, landers, rovers, and telescopes! Learn about the many pieces of technology we use to explore space, both nearby and distant. Then take a quiz and see how well you've explored the topic.
12. How Space Exploration Affects Culture & Society
Few events have had more impact on human culture and society than space exploration. Learn the various ways that culture and society have changed as a result of major space exploration events like the moon landing.
13. Energy: Definition & Types
After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain what energy is, list various types of energy, and identify which type or types of energy are present in a situation.
14. Weather: Definition & Types
Talk about weather is everywhere: on the news, in the papers, and in almost every conversation. What causes it all, though? In this lesson, we will define weather, take a look at the different types, and learn what causes weather changes to take place.
15. The Water Cycle: Precipitation, Condensation, and Evaporation
This lesson discusses the processes water takes as it moves around the Earth in the water cycle. You'll get an in-depth look at condensation, precipitation, and evaporation.
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