About This Chapter
Basics of Physical & Earth Sciences - Chapter Summary
Gain greater insight into the basics of physical and earth sciences using this chapter's engaging lessons. Ensure that you have a complete understanding of topics like the water cycle, states of matter and magnetic force. By the end of this chapter, you will be ready to do the following:
- List and describe the physical and chemical properties of matter
- Define and list types of simple machines
- Share the meaning of sound and factors that affect its speed
- Describe different kinds of light and discuss why it's called radiation
- Provide the definition and list different types of energy
- Explain the meaning and major features of landforms
- Discuss the three major rock groups
- Identify and describe different types of weather
Each lesson in this chapter is available as a short video that averages 8 minutes or a full transcript you can read as a text online or print to review at a later time. Below each video is a clickable timeline you can use to quickly jump to key topics within the lesson. If you'd like to test your knowledge of concepts covered in the lessons, feel free to take accompanying multiple-choice quizzes. Our practice exam ensures you fully comprehend the basics of physical and earth sciences before taking your test.
1. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
2. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
3. What Are Simple Machines? - Definition, Types & Examples
If you need to move or lift a heavy object, it would be wise to use a simple machine. Though these devices are far from fancy or high-tech, they are extremely helpful for getting work done.
4. What is Sound? - Definition and Factors Affecting the Speed of Sound
Explore the minute workings of sound waves and how they travel. We'll discuss the main factors that affect the speed of sound waves, and we'll try some mathematical problems involving the wave equation.
5. What is Light?
This lesson will define and describe what light is from both technical and more common-use perspectives, discuss what the different kinds of light are, and explain why it's called radiation.
6. Magnetic Force: Definition, Poles & Dipoles
You're probably familiar with magnets, but have you ever stopped to consider how they work? In this lesson, we'll look at the root of magnetism and some of the fundamental properties of magnets.
7. Energy: Definition & Types
After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain what energy is, list various types of energy, and identify which type or types of energy are present in a situation.
8. Landform: Definition & Types
Read about landforms and their major features. Learn the differences between formations like mountains and hills, valleys and canyons. (Hint: It has to do with their form.)
9. Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups
Did you know that lava is molten rock that reaches the earth's surface? Furthermore, did you know that rocks exist in three general forms: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic? This lesson describes these rock types and examples of each.
10. Weather: Definition & Types
Talk about weather is everywhere: on the news, in the papers, and in almost every conversation. What causes it all, though? In this lesson, we will define weather, take a look at the different types, and learn what causes weather changes to take place.
11. The Water Cycle: Precipitation, Condensation, and Evaporation
This lesson discusses the processes water takes as it moves around the Earth in the water cycle. You'll get an in-depth look at condensation, precipitation, and evaporation.
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