About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering high school biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding pollination and plant biology
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about plant biology
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the plant biology chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the plant biology chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any plant biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a plant biology unit of a standard high school biology course. Topics covered include:
- Classification of plants
- Growth in primary and secondary systems
- Growth in root systems
- Nitrogen fixation
- Phloem and xylem
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth
Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.
4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth
Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.
5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
8. Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans
Almost 80% of our atmosphere is nitrogen, but we can't use it. We will look at how this unusable nitrogen is converted into a form we can use and why nitrogen is important to plants and humans.
9. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function
Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.
10. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement
Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.
11. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
12. Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships
Ever wonder why bees are attracted to specific flowers? We will look at why certain animals are drawn to certain plants and other methods of pollination in this lesson.
13. Central Vacuole in Plant Cells: Definition & Function
Plant cells are composed of numerous organelles that work together in all aspects of the plant's life. In this lesson, you will learn about the central vacuole of plant cells.
14. What Is Primary Succession? - Definition & Examples
Changes occur all over the world every day. In ecology, changes in the types of organisms that inhabit an area over time is called succession. In this lesson, we will investigate primary succession.
15. Anther of a Flower: Function & Definition
Flowers, like all living organisms, must have a way to reproduce. One of the crucial reproductive structures found in all flowers is the anther. In this lesson, we will explore the structure and function of the anther to gain an understanding of this important part.
16. Auxins in Plants: Definition & Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones that stimulate plant growth in response to environmental cues. These hormones direct different parts of a plant to grow in different ways, as well as helping repair injured parts of the plant.
17. Bryophytes: Definition, Types, Characteristics & Examples
You may be familiar with green moss growing on a rock. Moss is a bryophyte, a type of nonvascular plant found near fresh water. This lesson describes bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
18. Epicotyl: Definition & Function
Maybe you already have an understanding of how plants grow from a seed into a plant, but you want to know exactly how that seed breaks through to the surface. It is because of the epicotyl. Learn about this structure in this lesson.
19. Flower Sepals: Function & Definition
Flowers are made of many parts, ranging from petal to stem. In this lesson, you will learn about the sepals of a flower and then test your knowledge with a quiz.
20. Gravitropism: Definition & Examples
Have you ever wondered why a plant's shoots grow up, while its roots grow down? In this lesson, you'll learn about the mechanisms that control this peculiar plant behavior.
21. Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Phototrophs: Definition and Examples
Most animals gather and take in their energy via some form of eating similar to humans, but some organisms cannot simply 'eat' like we can. In this lesson, we look at two types of phototrophic organisms who get their energy in a different way.
22. Phylum Rhodophyta: Definition and Characteristics
Phylum Rhodophyta is a classification of a specific set of red algae. Depending on who you are listening to will determine whether they are protists or plants. We will look here to the origins and specifications of the phylum Rhodophyta.
23. Plant Stem: Function, Types & Parts
Have you ever wondered how a plant stays upright without falling over? In this lesson you will learn the different parts of a plant stem. In addition, you will learn the function of the plant stem. Test your knowledge at the end with a quiz.
24. Primary Growth of Plants
In this lesson, you'll learn about how a plant grows taller and how this is different from a plant growing wider. You'll also learn about the types of tissues produced during primary growth and the functions of those tissues.
25. Prokaryotic Algae Cells: Function, Definition & Features
We can separate many of the kingdoms and domains of biological taxonomy based on the type of cells in the living organism. In this case, we will be looking at prokaryotic blue-green algae cells.
26. What Are Mycorrhizae? - Definition, Function & Products
This lesson explores common types of mycorrhizae and describes their function. Additionally, this lesson examines their ecological and economic importance.
27. Xerophytes: Definition, Adaptation & Examples
Have you ever wondered how plants survive in areas with very little water? Xerophytes have adapted over thousands of years to live in harsh conditions. This lesson will introduce you to the characteristics that enable xerophytes to survive.
28. Cryptogams: Classification & Characteristics
Cryptogams are classified as lower plants because they don't have many of the structures we associate with plants. In part, this is because most cryptogams aren't even in the plant kingdom! Complete this lesson to learn about this unique set of organisms.
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