About This Chapter
Basics of the Circulatory System - Chapter Summary
In these lessons on the circulatory system, you will review how cardiac output is calculated, what blood types mean, and how blood travels through the body. You will come to better understand disorders of the circulatory system and the functions of a double circulatory system. By the end of the chapter, you should feel confident and prepared to:
- Explain what open and closed circulatory systems have in common
- Recognize chambers and one-way valves in the heart
- Discuss what happens during each cardiac cycle
- Define systole and diastole
- Recall how the heart's regulatory system works
- List the three layers that make up blood vessels
- Discuss events in your body that promote blood clotting
- Explain functions of the lymphatic system
These self-paced lessons will help you quickly get up to speed on the basics of the circulatory system. A brief quiz is available for each lesson to test your knowledge on concepts covered. In addition, full transcripts are available for every lesson.
1. Compare & Contrast Open & Closed Circulatory Systems
In this lesson, you will explore open and closed circulatory systems. You will also learn what these two systems have in common and what makes them different.
2. Anatomy of the Heart: Blood Flow and Parts
In this lesson, you will take a look inside the heart and identify the chambers and one-way valves that make up this vital organ. You will also follow along as we trace the flow of blood through the heart chambers.
3. The Cardiac Cycle: Phases, Explanation & Terms
In this lesson, you will learn what happens during each heartbeat, or cardiac cycle. You will also learn that the heartbeat involves periods of relaxation and contraction, known as diastole and systole, respectively.
4. Systole: Definition & Measurement
This lesson defines what the term systole means and how it occurs in the body. We will take a brief look at the function of the heart in order to fully understand what is happening during systole. After reading the lesson, there is a short quiz to check your knowledge.
5. Diastole: Definition & Importance
We are going to discuss what diastole means and when it occurs. You will learn about the importance of diastole. There will be a quiz to check your understanding after the lesson.
6. Double Circulation: Definition & Advantage
Humans and many other organisms use a double circulatory system. This means that we have two separate circuits for blood in our body. Learn how these circuits differ and the function of each one.
7. Heartbeat and Heart Contraction Coordination
In this lesson you will learn about your heart's very own regulatory system, the intrinsic conduction system, and how it sets the pace for a normal, healthy heartbeat. You will discover that your heart moves to its own beat thanks to the natural pacemaker of the heart called the SA node.
8. Cardiac Output: Definition, Formula, Calculation & Normal Range
Medical professionals need to be able to quantify how efficient your heart works, which involves understanding cardiac output. This lesson will look at what cardiac output is, how it is calculated and why it is important.
9. How Blood Travels Throughout the Body
This lesson is going to cover the different blood vessels that carry blood throughout the body. The route and changes in blood pressure will also be discussed. A short quiz will follow.
10. Blood Vessel Layers: Tunica Intima, Tunica Media & Tunica Adventitia
In this lesson, you will take a microscopic look at the three layers, or tunics, that make up your blood vessels. Follow along and learn how the different cells within these tunics help the vessels contract and relax as blood moves through your circulatory system.
11. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
12. Blood Coagulation and Wound Healing
When your blood vessels suffer damage, your body follows a sequence of events to promote blood clotting. In this lesson, you will learn about coagulation cascade and important clotting factors involved in wound healing.
13. Functions of the Lymphatic System
In this lesson, you will learn about the lymphatic system and the vital role it plays in keeping the cardiovascular system working. You'll discover how the lymphatic system (with its lymphatic vessels and capillaries) quietly works in the background to return leaked fluids back to the blood.
14. Major Disorders of the Circulatory System
In this lesson we'll first review what the circulatory system is. Then we'll explore three major types of disorders in the circulatory system: heart attack, stroke, and atherosclerosis.
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