Ch 4: Behaviors & Properties of Solutions

About This Chapter

Take a look at this chapter on the properties and behaviors of solutions in order to prepare for an exam or stay at the top of your class. This collection of mobile-friendly and professionally written video lessons clarifies these subjects.

Behaviors & Properties of Solutions - Chapter Summary

Our instructors present the behaviors and properties of solutions for your analysis in this chapter. Watch these video lessons at your own pace to study topics such as solutions, solvents and solutes, and solute concentration as well as the process of calculating molarity and molality concentration. In addition, you can review parts per million and methods for calculating percent composition. After you finish this chapter, you should be ready to:

  • Discuss the factors in the rate of dissolution
  • Outline the different methods used to separate mixtures
  • Explain weak acids, buffers and weak bases
  • Differentiate between titrations of a strong acid or base and a weak acid or base
  • Identify the Arrhenius definition of acids and bases
  • Describe the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definition of acids and bases
  • Calculate the pH of a solution
  • Understand how to calculate the pH of a buffered solution

Go through the chapter at your own speed, using the video tabs feature to go back and review any portion of a video. Our printable lesson transcripts make helpful study guides that highlight the key points and terms from the lesson. We've provided the Dashboard so you can keep track of your progress through the chapter and submit your questions for clarification.

14 Lessons in Chapter 4: Behaviors & Properties of Solutions
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Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents

1. Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents

A chemical solution is made of a mixture of two or more substances, the solvent is the substance that does the dissolving and the solute is the substance being dissolved. Learn more about their functions and processes.

Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration

2. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration

Molarity is defined as moles of solute per liter of solution and is often used to calculate solutions in stoichiometry. Molality is moles of solute per kilogram of solvent, which is used in calculating boiling point and freezing point. Learn about when to use molarity and molality and how to uncover unknown variables through their equations.

Solute Concentration: Definition & Overview

3. Solute Concentration: Definition & Overview

A solute concentration is the amount of particles dissolved in a solution. Discover the full definition of solute concentration, and see an overview of its characteristics and an example that can easily be created in the kitchen.

Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas

4. Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas

Empirical formulas express type and proportions of atoms in the simplest form. Learn how to calculate percent composition of compounds and determine empirical formulas, and understand how this differs from chemical formulas.

Parts Per Million: Definition, Calculation & Example

5. Parts Per Million: Definition, Calculation & Example

Parts per million, abbreviated as PPM, is a common term encountered in chemistry. Explore how PPM is measured, how to calculate PPM from a sample, and examples of ratios to practice calculating parts per million.

The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition

6. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition

Dissolution occurs when the solute in a solvent forms a solution. Learn about the factors and rate of dissolution, explore how like dissolves like, and define key terms such as the greater surface area, miscible, and immiscible.

Chromatography, Distillation and Filtration: Methods of Separating Mixtures

7. Chromatography, Distillation and Filtration: Methods of Separating Mixtures

A mixture is defined as a physical combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. Learn about the types of mixtures and the methods for separating mixtures (chromatography, distillation, evaporation, crystallization, filtration, dissolving, magnetism, and manual separation).

Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers

8. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers

Hydrogen ions, given away by acids, can be strong or weak acids. Learn more about weak acids, weak bases, buffers, conjugate acid bases, and the roles of acidity constant and pKa.

Titration of a Strong Acid or a Strong Base

9. Titration of a Strong Acid or a Strong Base

In acid-base chemistry, titrations can be used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. Explore titration, titrant, neutralization reaction and equivalence point, and how to perform a titration and interpret a titration curve.

Titrations with Weak Acids or Weak Bases

10. Titrations with Weak Acids or Weak Bases

In chemistry, titration uses known solutions (titrants) to analyze unknown solutions and their properties. Learn about titration curves and how they differ based on titrations between weak acids and strong bases or between strong acids and weak bases.

The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases

11. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases

The Arrhenius definition of acids and bases is based on compounds that produce either hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions respectively in a solution. Discover the differences between Arrhenius acids and Arrhenius bases and between strong and weak acids and bases.

The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases

12. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases

Chemist Johannes Bronsted and scientist Thomas Lowry proposed that an acid should be defined as a substance that can donate a proton, while a base is any substance that can accept protons. American chemist G.N. Lewis proposed a different theory. Learn about three popular scientific definitions of acids and bases.

The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution

13. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution

In chemistry, the pH scale is used to measure acidity on a scale of 0-6 for acids, 7 for neutral, and 8-14 to represent basic. Take an in-depth look into calculating the pH of a solution, and explore the role of hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in this process.

Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution

14. Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution

A buffer is a solution that helps to keep the pH of a solution balanced. Learn all about buffers, the pH of a buffer solution, and the pH of a buffer solution when base or acid is added, along with examples.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
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