About This Chapter
Biochemical Reactions in Muscle Contractions - Chapter Summary
In this chapter on biochemical reactions in muscle contractions, brief lessons cover topics such as the types of muscle fiber found in humans and factors affecting anaerobic respiration. Additionally, you can learn about muscle metabolism and certain organisms' use of anaerobic respiration as a backup plan when there is no oxygen. Upon completion of the chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- List different types of muscle tissue and skeletal muscle fibers
- Explain how actin and myosin control voluntary movement
- Define beta oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation
- Discuss the importance of the glycolysis pathway
- Recall how your muscles use molecules to contract
- Describe the steps of the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain
- Recount how NADH and cellular respiration work together
- Provide examples of anaerobic respiration and anaerobic exercise
Our instructors provide helpful illustrations and animations to assist you with grasping the concepts presented. A brief quiz is available for each lesson to test your understanding of biochemical reactions in muscle contractions. The quizzes link back to the corresponding points in the lessons, so if you get a question wrong you can easily review that topic again. You can also contact our instructors with any questions about the lesson material.
1. Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth
Have you ever wondered why muscle has different names such as striated, smooth, voluntary, or involuntary? This lesson describes the different types of muscle tissue based on their histology, mechanism of contraction, and regulation.
2. Skeletal Muscle Fibers: Types and Functions
Did you know most human muscles contain a mixture of fast, slow and intermediate fibers? This lesson describes the structure and function of the three muscle fiber types found in humans.
3. Muscle Contraction: Actin and Myosin Bonding
Muscles contract through the action of two proteins called actin and myosin. In this lesson, you'll learn how actin and myosin filaments, in concert with regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin, control your voluntary movements.
4. Beta Oxidation: Definition & Steps
In this lesson, you'll discover what beta oxidation is and what it is used for. You'll also learn a little bit about fatty acids and the steps involved in their breakdown.
5. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
6. Muscle Metabolism: Synthesis of ATP
Did you know our muscles use billions of molecules every second to contract? This lesson describes the different metabolic processes by which ATP is generated by the muscle cell. Examples are utilized to define glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
7. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
8. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
9. Role of NADH in Cellular Respiration
This lesson is on the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen (NADH) in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll learn about NADH and cellular respiration, and we'll discuss how the two work together to make energy for the cell.
10. Oxidative Phosphorylation: Definition, Steps & Products
Learn about the process through which living cells metabolize glucose. This article will focus on what oxidative phosphorylation is, the key steps leading up to oxidative phosphorylation, and the end results.
11. Anaerobic Respiration: Definition, Equation & Examples
Many organisms are capable of undergoing anaerobic respiration. In some cases, it's a 'backup plan' when oxygen is absent, and in other cases, they thrive that way. Here we will investigate what anaerobic respiration is, the equation and examples of it at work.
12. Anaerobic Exercise: Definition, Benefits & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about anaerobic exercise and its health benefits. In addition, you will obtain knowledge of the various types of anaerobic workouts.
13. Factors Affecting Anaerobic Respiration
In this lesson, you'll be learning about anaerobic respiration in the body. If you've ever felt your muscles burning as you run, you've experienced anaerobic respiration. Today we'll look at different factors that affect this process.
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