About This Chapter
Biochemistry for Nutrition - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Learn about biochemical, enzymatic and redox reactions in this chapter on biochemistry and health. Instructors will cover critical functions like cellular respiration and the citric acid cycle while comparing and contrasting alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. You'll get an inside look at the steps in the electron transport chain and examine the functions of enzymes. This chapter is designed to teach you about:
- Synthesis and decomposition
- Substrate and activation energy
- Electron carriers
- Energy transfer in cells
|Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition||Distinguishes between synthesis reaction and decomposition reaction. Explains what takes place in a reversible reaction.|
|Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy||Examines the cellular processes that enzymes perform. Describes the structure of enzymes and defines key terms, including the enzyme-substrate complex.|
|Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions||Explains how coenzymes, cofactors and prosthetic groups serve as helpers for enzymes. Shows examples of enzyme partners.|
|Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation||Differentiates between competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. Describes enzyme regulation, enzyme activators and positive and negative regulators.|
|Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples||Introduces the cellular respiration process, oxidation-reduction reactions and electron carriers. Defines NAD and FAD and explains their purpose in cellular respiration.|
|Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells||Explores the process that turns organic compounds into ATP. Compares anaerobic and aerobic respiration and describes ATP and ADP.|
|Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance||Details the stages of cellular respiration and the steps in glycolysis. Defines pyruvate, NADH, glucose and more.|
|Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples||Describes fermentation and analyzes the differences between lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation.|
|The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps||Explains why the citric acid cycle is important and details the steps in the cycle. Examines acetyl coenzyme A, pyruvate oxidation, NAD and FAD.|
|The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps||Examines the steps in this final process in cellular respiration. Describes ATP synthase and defines other key terms.|
1. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition
Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.
2. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
3. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
4. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
5. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
6. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
7. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
8. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
9. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
10. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
11. Advanced Glycation End Products: Formation & Inhibitors
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) are currently believed to cause several diseases. Thus, is it important to understand how they are formed and what we can do to inhibit them.
12. Advanced Glycation End Products: Definition & Nutrition
In this lesson you will learn about what are advanced glycation end products, how they enter our bodies, how they can cause certain diseases and how nutrition can influence their levels in our bodies.
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