About This Chapter
Let our experienced instructors lead you through lessons covering the foundations of biochemistry. You'll discover concepts like cellular respiration, photosynthesis and redox reactions. By the end of this chapter, you will know about:
- How chlorophyll absorbs light energy
- Inhibition and regulation of enzymatic reactions
- Glycolysis, lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation in anaerobic respiration
- The citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain in aerobic respiration
- Enzymes - substrate, active site and activation energy
- Coenzymes, cofactors and prosthetic groups
|Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells||Discover the process of cellular respiration and study related terms, including cellular metabolism, aerobic and anaerobic.|
|Anaerobic Respiration: Glycolysis||Study ideas related to glycolysis, such as pyruvate and NADH.|
|Anaerobic Respiration: Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation||Explore the lactic acid cycle and the process of alcohol fermentation.|
|Aerobic Respiration I: The Citric Acid Cycle||Study vocabulary related to the citric acid cycle, such as coenzyme A, acetyl CoA, NAD and FAD.|
|Aerobic Respiration II: The Electron Transport Chain||See how cytochromes and ATP synthase apply to the electron transport chain.|
|How Chlorophyll Absorbs Light Energy||Explore photosynthesis and learn about photons, ground state and absorption spectrum.|
|Photosynthesis I: Photolysis and the Light Reactions||Analyze the concepts of photolysis, thylakoids and light reactions.|
|Photosynthesis II: The Calvin-Benson Cycle (Dark Reactions)||Learn about CO2 fixation, dark reactions, rubisco and stroma.|
|Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy||Examine enzymes and learn about things like the enzyme-substrate complex.|
|Coenzymes, Cofactors, and Prosthetic Groups||Discover topics such as organic and inorganic cofactors, prosthetic groups and hemes.|
|Inhibition and Regulation of Enzymatic Reactions||Study ideas related to the inhibition and regulation of enzymatic reactions, such as competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, positive regulator and negative regulator.|
|Redox (Oxidation/Reduction) Reactions and Electron Carriers)||See the importance of oxidation, NAD, FAD and reduction in chemical reactions.|
1. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
2. Enzyme Activity & Inhibition: Structure, Substrates, pH & Temperature
Enzymes appreciate the right working conditions. Can you blame them? We all work best in the correct environment. In this lesson, we'll learn how substrate concentration, temperature, and pH affect enzyme activity and structure.
3. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
4. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
5. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
6. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
7. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
8. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
9. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
10. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
11. Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis
Plants are clean, green, photosynthesizing machines. Using a specialized pigment called chlorophyll, plants are able to soak up energy from the sun and turn it into food. In this lesson, we'll start to learn why chlorophyll literally gets excited about a sunny day!
12. Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products
In this lesson, we'll learn how electrons get excited during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, jumping off photosystem reaction centers like they were trampolines! In addition, we'll learn how the splitting of water creates reactants for this part of photosynthesis while creating a little fresh air for us.
13. Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
Photosynthesis starts out using the energy from sunlight to get things started, but it ends with the dark reactions, which don't need sunshine to complete sugar production. In the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used to produce sugars.
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Other chapters within the CLEP Natural Sciences: Study Guide & Test Prep course
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