About This Chapter
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Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding biochemical reactions or biochemistry
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- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about biochemistry
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
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How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Biochemistry in Anatomy and Physiology chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
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- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any biochemistry question. They're here to help!
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What are synthesis and decomposition reactions?
- What is the function of enzymes?
- How do coenzymes, cofactors and prosthetic groups interact?
- How are enzymatic reactions inhibited and regulated?
- What are redox reactions?
- How does cellular respiration enable energy transfer in cells?
- What are the steps and products of the glycolysis pathway?
- What is alcoholic fermentation?
- What are the products and steps of the citric acid cycle?
- What are the products and steps of the electron transport chain?
1. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition
Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.
2. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
3. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
4. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
5. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
6. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
7. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
8. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
9. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
10. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
11. Human Growth Hormones: Uses & Side Effects
This lesson is about human growth hormone, or HGH. We will discuss what HGH is, its normal function in humans, conditions for which it is prescribed, its side effects, and ways it has been abused for unintended use.
12. Keratin Protein & the Epidermis
This lesson is about keratin and its role in the epidermis, or the skin. We will talk about what the skin is made of, what keratin protein looks like, how it works inside the skin, and what happens when keratin creates disease in the skin.
13. The Three Processes of Urine Formation
Urine may be a waste product, but it is a carefully created waste product. There are three main stages in urine formation, and this lesson covers them all!
14. Calcium Ions: Definition & Formula
Have you ever heard of a calcium ion? Did you know that is it super important to your everyday life? Luckily you have come to the right spot! In this lesson, you'll learn what a calcium ion is, why it is important and how to identify it.
15. Alcohol Myopia: Theory & Definition
This lesson will describe the theory of alcohol myopia and how it relates to alcohol ingestion. Additionally, it will define the condition along with a short description of how alcohol affects the body.
16. Synthesis Reaction: Definition, Formula & Examples
Synthesis reactions, the act of combining two or more substances together to make a product, occur all around us, from the kitchen to our chemical laboratories. In this lesson, learn more about this amazing reaction, its formula, and examples.
17. Tetramer: Definition, Analysis & Immunology
Have you ever wondered how doctors can detect viruses or even cancer by doing a blood test? Maybe, you've wondered how doctors can detect cancer before a person even has symptoms. This lesson will explain how tetramers are one of the many modern techniques used to detect the presence of a disease.
18. Agonist: Definition & Effect
Have you ever wondered how hormones, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs actually cause changes in your body? In this lesson you will learn about one way that chemicals can alter the activity of receptor proteins and their cells.
19. Biotransformation of Drugs: Definition, Types & Process
This lesson covers the body's ability to biotransform, or modify the structure of substances in order to maintain an interior state of dynamic balance. We'll also explore the biotransformation process of drugs.
20. Catabolism: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we will learn about catabolic reactions and how they create energy for the body. Learn more about catabolic reactions and why they're important to the body before testing your knowledge with a quiz.
21. Gluconeogenesis: Definition, Steps & Pathway
In this lesson, we will learn about gluconeogenesis, what it is, and why it is important to the body. We will also learn what can be used as a precursor to gluconeogenesis.
22. Glycogenolysis: Definition & Pathway
In this lesson we will learn about glycogenolysis and how it provides glucose for energy in the body. We will learn how the glucose is stored and how glycogenolysis get the glucose out of storage form and into the body.
23. Lasix Medicine: Uses & Side Effects
This lesson describes what edema is and when it occurs. It also details what Lasix medicine is and when it is used. The side effects associated with this type of treatment are also explained.
24. Synergism: Definition & Examples
In this lesson we're going to take a look at the phenomenon of synergism. We'll see how synergism is used in the healthcare field to treat patients and we'll go over an example of how it can cause undesired effects in the body.
25. What Are Antioxidants? - Definition, Foods & Benefits
In this lesson, you will learn about antioxidants and why they are important to your health. You will also learn how to incorporate foods that are rich in antioxidants into your daily diet.
26. What Are Complete Proteins? - Definition & Food Examples
Proteins are the body's building blocks and without them life would not be possible. But not all proteins are created equal. Some proteins are considered complete, while others are incomplete and need to be combined in order to be utilized properly. Understanding complete proteins can help an individual improve their diet and overall health.
27. What Is Acetaminophen? - Definition, Uses & Side Effects
Acetaminophen is a common over-the-counter medication, but what is it, and how does it work? After reading this lesson, you will know exactly what acetaminophen is, what it is used for, and what potential harmful effects it may cause.
28. What Is Codeine? - Effects & Withdrawal
Codeine is a narcotic pain medication used to treat mild to moderate pain. Prolonged use can cause both mental and physical dependence, so dosages should be controlled by a doctor. Read this lesson to learn more.
29. What Is Niacin? - Benefits, Foods & Side Effects
Is there a superhero in every family? There is at least one caped crusader in the B-vitamin family. Niacin can be amazingly produced from the common amino acid tryptophan. This lesson explores niacin's benefits, food sources, and deficiency/toxicity symptoms.
30. What Is Riboflavin? - Benefits, Foods & Deficiency Symptoms
In this lesson we will learn about riboflavin and its importance in the body. We will learn what foods are high in riboflavin and what happens if we don't get enough riboflavin in our diet.
31. What Is Thiamine? - Benefits, Foods & Deficiency Symptoms
Can vitamins give you an energy boost? Maybe not directly, but some do provide a helping hand to make energy available for your body. Thiamine is one of those vitamins. This lesson will explore thiamine's benefits, its food sources and symptoms of thiamine deficiency.
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Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
- Inorganic Chemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Organic Molecules in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Cardiovascular System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
- Digestive System: Help and Review
- Urinary System: Help and Review
- Endocrine System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Muscular System: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Early Development to Childbirth: Help and Review
- Overview of Nerves & Senses