About This Chapter
Biochemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter provides you with an overview of biochemistry. In these lessons, we will touch on topics like biochemical reactions. Learn about synthesis and decomposition, the function of enzymes and enzymatic reactions. You'll also get to study concepts that include electron carriers, cellular respiration, glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation. Study a range of ways cells in the body function and interact with each other. Lessons will also cover the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. Some of the additional things you will learn about include:
- Reversible reactions
- Enzyme-substrate complex
- Competitive inhibition
- Cellular metabolism
- Lactic acid
- Aerobic ATP
|Biochemical Reactions - Synthesis and Decomposition||Explore biochemical reactions and related terms, such as ATP, ADP and reversible reactions.|
|Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy||Analyze the function of enzymes.|
|Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions||Examine concepts that include inorganic cofactor, organic cofactor and heme.|
|Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation||Learn about concepts related to enzymatic reactions, such as inhibitor, regulator, competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, positive regulator and negative regulator.|
|Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples||Study these concepts and learn terms, like reduction, oxidation, electron carrier, NAD and FAD.|
|Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells||Find out more about cellular respiration, including the descriptions of cellular metabolism, cellular respiration, ATP, ADP, aerobic and anaerobic.|
|Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance||Take a look at the glycolysis pathway and terms like pyruvate and NADH.|
|Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples||Discover the similarities and differences between lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation.|
|The Citric Acid (Kreb) Cycle: Products and Steps||Explore the citric acid cycle, including concepts like aerobic respiration, the citric acid cycle, coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA, NAD and FAD.|
|The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps||Examine the electron transport chain and ideas that include electron transport chain, cytochromes and ATP synthase.|
|Application of Biochemical Pathways to Daily Activities||Study the application of biochemical pathways to daily activities and terms like residual ATP, creatine phosphate, aerobic ATP and anaerobic ATP.|
1. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition
Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.
2. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
3. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
4. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
5. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
6. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
7. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
8. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
9. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
10. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
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