About This Chapter
Biological Development - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The stages of biological development start when a baby is still in the womb. In fact, quite a bit of growth and development occurs within the prenatal period. As you will learn in these lessons, there are different prenatal stages at which the baby's body is forming. Each stage is quite important. The infant stage is also a time of critical growth and development, and important milestones continue as a person grows, even into adulthood. This chapter will cover different aspects of biological development, starting in the prenatal stages going through adulthood. Some of the things you'll learn include:
- The prenatal stages of development
- Brain development before birth
- Important growth and development stages in infants
- Maturation of adolescents
- Physical, psychological and emotional changes in adults
- Potential problems during the birthing process
|Prenatal Stages and Development: Germinal, Embryonic & Fetal Period||Discover the germinal period, embryonic period and fetal period of development to understand why they are critical for development.|
|Principles of Growth and Development||Examine the three principles of growth: cephalocaudal, proximodistal and orthogenetic.|
|Prenatal Stages of Brain Development||Explore the stages of brain development.|
|The Prenatal Environment and Hazards to Healthy Prenatal Development||Analyze the prenatal environment, including the impact of drug use and common environmental hazards.|
|The Impact of Mother's Emotional and Physical State on the Prenatal Environment||Find out how age, emotional condition, nutritional condition impact growth and development during the prenatal stage.|
|The Perinatal Environment and Potential Hazards During the Birth Process||Examine the perinatal environment and potential hazards during the birth process.|
|The Neonatal Environment: Definition & Apgar Test||Study the neonatal environment definition and the Apgar test.|
|The Newborn: Capabilities, Growth and Developmental Milestones||Explore the common newborn reflexes and the physical and motor age norms for newborns.|
|Sexual Development and Maturation of the Adolescent||Analyze the sexual maturation and development of adolescents and gender difference in sexual growth and development.|
|Physical, Psychological and Emotional Changes in Adults||Discover common physical, psychological and emotional changes that occur in adults.|
1. Prenatal Stages and Development: Germinal, Embryonic & Fetal Period
In the 9 months before a baby is born, there is an enormous amount of prenatal development. In this lesson, you will explore the following stages of prenatal development: the germinal period, the embryonic period, and the fetal period.
2. Principles of Growth and Development
Is there a pattern to how human growth and development takes place? This lesson will examine some universal principles of growth and development in order to help you find the answer to this question.
3. Prenatal Stages of Brain Development
The prenatal brain develops at an amazing speed. This lesson provides an overview of this brain development throughout the three trimesters of pregnancy and highlights key stages.
4. The Prenatal Environment and Hazards to Healthy Prenatal Development
In this lesson, learn about the prenatal environment and what can be harmful to prenatal development. Learn about the hazards of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, disease and environmental pollutants during pregnancy.
5. The Impact of Mother's Emotional and Physical State on the Prenatal Environment
An unborn child and its mother are connected both physically and emotionally. Learn how prenatal development is affected by both the emotional and physical state of the mother in this lesson.
6. The Perinatal Environment and Potential Hazards During the Birth Process
What does perinatal mean? What happens during the birth process? What are some things that can go wrong? You will find the answers to these questions and more in this lesson!
7. The Neonatal Environment: Definition & Apgar Test
The neonatal period lasts from birth until four weeks old. Care during this period is essential to healthy development. In this lesson, explore the neonatal environment and learn how the Apgar test is used to assess newborn functioning.
8. The Newborn: Capabilities, Growth, and Developmental Milestones
Newborn growth and development is an amazing process! In this lesson, you will discover how babies learn, when they acquire certain abilities, and what reflexes they are born with.
9. Sexual Development and Maturation of the Adolescent
In this lesson, explore the changes that take place during puberty. You will meet Dick and Jane as they experience these changes, and you will be able to test your knowledge with a quiz at the end.
10. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Changes in Adults
As an adult you establish a unique identity, reach the proverbial midlife crisis, and eventually succumb to old age. In this lesson, learn about the physical, psychological, and emotional changes that take place along this journey.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Psychology 103: Human Growth and Development course
- Theoretical Approaches to Human Growth and Development
- Research Methods and the Study of Human Growth and Development
- Genetic Influences on Development
- Sensory and Perceptual Development
- Cognition and Cognitive Development
- Creativity and Intelligence Development
- Language Development
- Social Development
- Social Relationship Development
- Atypical Development
- Studying for Psychology 103