About This Chapter
Biology of the Cell - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter's lessons cover many aspects and concepts related to the biology of cells. Our instructors will help you to learn more about the basic structure of cells, including how food is transported in a cell and how things get into and out of a cell. You'll also study different processes that occur in a cell. These lessons cover pretty much all the basic concepts of cell biology. Some of the things you'll learn include:
- The process of membrane transport
- How proteins are processed in a cell
- How food is produced in a cell
- What happens when a virus invades a cell
- What occurs when there is an imbalance in a cell
|Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells||Study these two types of cells.|
|Phospholipids||Explore this major component of all cell membranes.|
|The Cell Membrane||Discover the job of the cell membrane as it separates the cell interior from the exterior.|
|Membrane Transport||Examine the ways water and other things get in and out of a cell.|
|Endocytosis and Exocytosis||Analyze these processes of moving things in and out of a cell.|
|The Nucleus||See how the nucleus is comparable to the brain in humans and acts as center of a cell, controlling all functions.|
|Ribosomes and the Endomembrane System||Discover the relationship between these terms and the processing of proteins in a cell.|
|The Cytoskeleton||Explore the cytoskeleton.|
|Mitochondria||Learn about the mitochondria.|
|Chloroplasts||Examine how food is produced for cells.|
|The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole||Discover the roles of the cell wall and central vacuole.|
|Viruses||Analyze what happens when a virus attacks a cell.|
|Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation||Take a look at these three concepts and see how they affect a cell.|
|Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic Solutions||See how cells are affected by these solutions.|
|Active Transport and Facilitated Diffusion||Study these two processes of moving materials across the cell membrane.|
1. Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation
The cells in our bodies are in constant flux through the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Learn about how saturation levels force change, and why we're lucky they do.
2. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
3. How a Phospholipid Bilayer Is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic
In this lesson, we will learn what gives phospholipids a dual personality. How can this molecule be both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and why is this important to a cell?
4. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
5. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
6. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
7. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
8. The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location
The ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for decoding your DNA. In this lesson, we'll learn about ribosome structure, function and location - characteristics that make it a very good genetic translator.
9. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
10. The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments
In this lesson, we'll learn about the cytoskeleton of your cells. This network of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments helps different types of cells maintain a unique set of characteristics, including shape and movement.
11. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
12. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
13. Plant Cell Structures: The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole
In this lesson, we'll talk about some of the things that make plant cells so different from our cells. In addition to being mean, green photosynthesizing machines, plant cells have cell walls and central vacuoles to make them unique!
14. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. Eukaryotes organize different functions within specialized membrane-bound compartments called organelles. These structures do not exist in prokaryotes.
15. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
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