About This Chapter
Biology Review - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, our lessons will review basic biology. Study DNA, the building block of the human body, in-depth to see how it plays an important role in life. You'll get to learn more about its structure as we look at bonds and base pairings. In addition, lessons will cover RNA and the function of enzymes. You'll learn about the basics of biology to prepare you for further lessons in microbiology. Some of the things you can expect to learn include:
- The chemical structure of nucleic acids
- Differences between RNA and DNA
- Major elements in biological molecules
- Average atomic mass
- Passive transport in cells
|DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds||Take a look into nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds in DNA.|
|DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing||Discover the base pairings of adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine in DNA.|
|DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule||Examine the double helix structure of DNA.|
|Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)||Explore the differences between RNA and DNA in addition to learning the types of RNA.|
|Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy||Learn the substrate, active site and activation energy of enzymes.|
|Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates & Lipids||Study the major elemental components of biological molecules.|
|Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass||Analyze isotopes and average atomic mass.|
|How Radioactive Isotopes Track Biological Molecules||Find out how radioactive isotopes track biological molecules.|
|Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis||Examine simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.|
|Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples||Learn about active transport in cells.|
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
6. Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates & Lipids
Bacterial cells have complex macromolecules built from simple molecules. In this lesson, we will look at the major elements in the building blocks of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.
7. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
8. How Radioactive Isotopes Track Biological Molecules
Radioactive isotopes can be used to track atoms and label biological molecules. This lesson explores how this can be applied to microbiology to learn more about the way a cell works.
9. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
10. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Microbiology Textbook course
- Microbiology Basics
- Bacterial Biology
- Microbiology Laboratory Techniques
- Microorganisms and the Environment
- The Disease Process
- Protozoan Diseases
- Introduction to Viruses
- DNA Viruses
- RNA Viruses
- Fungal Infections
- Foodborne Illnesses and Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases
- Blood-borne Bacterial Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections
- Immunology And the Body's Defenses Against Pathogens
- Antimicrobial Drugs
- Food and Industrial Microbiology
- Sterilization and Antiseptic Techniques