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Ch 12: Biomolecules

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about the different aspects of biomolecules, including proteins, DNA and RNA. Use the quizzes that follow each lesson to make sure you understand the subject matter.

Biomolecules are present in each and every one of us. These molecules include things like lipids, proteins and even the building blocks of the human body - DNA and RNA. You've likely heard of these things before, but our lessons will give you an in-depth look at them. In this chapter, you'll find out about the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. You'll study amino acids and discover their importance in our bodies. Lessons will also cover DNA and RNA, letting you get an intimate look at how they are structured and what they do in the body. Some of the other things you'll learn in this chapter include:

  • How peptides are structured
  • The different categories of amino acids
  • How DNA is formed
  • The nitrogen bases in DNA
  • Types of carbohydrates
  • The role of peptide bonds

VideoObjective
Structure and Function of Carbohydrates Discover the three types of carbohydrates and their chemical structures.
Structure and Function of Lipids Explore the importance of lipids.
Proteins I: Structure and Function Examine how the body uses proteins.
Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds Analyze why proteins are different from other amino acid bonds.
Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids Find out how amino acids are characterized.
DNA & RNA Learn the language of DNA and RNA to learn more about these biological building blocks.
DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing Discover the four nitrogenous bases of DNA.

9 Lessons in Chapter 12: Biomolecules
Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

1. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.

Structure and Function of Lipids

2. Structure and Function of Lipids

Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.

Proteins I: Structure and Function

3. Proteins I: Structure and Function

We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.

Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds

4. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds

In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.

Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids

5. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids

How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.

DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

6. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.

DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing

7. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing

Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.

DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity

8. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity

This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.

Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)

9. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)

In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.

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