About This Chapter
Bonding - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The purpose of this chapter is to help you understand how atoms interact to form chemical bonds and substances. You'll learn about the electrostatic forces that occur between oppositely charged particles, such as electrons and atomic nuclei, and how they create bonds. The differences between strong and weak bonds will also be discussed, including covalent, ionic, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding.
Additional topics include covalent bonds, or what happens when chemical elements decide to share electrons. You'll also learn about the important differences between covalent and ionic bonds and compounds. At the end of this chapter, you have an understanding of the following topics:
- The four types of chemical bonds, including covalent, hydrogen, ionic and polar
- How the Octet Rule can be applied to main group elements and metals
- Lewis or electron dot structures
- Ionic compounds, including their properties and the strength of their bonds
- How the VSPER (valance shell electron pair repulsion) and other scientific theories can be used to predict molecular shape
- Intermolecular, intramolecular and macromolecular bonding
|Chemical Bonds I: Covalent||Understand how molecules form. Define and differentiate among types of chemical bonds, including chemical, covalent, double and triple bonds.|
|Chemical Bonds II: Ionic||Describe how ions form and bond, including anions and cations. Discuss electronegativity as a chemical property of an atom.|
|Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent||Define polar and non-polar covalent bonds.|
|Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen||Describe the formation of hydrogen and polar covalent bonds.|
|The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms||Discuss the application of the Octet Rule, and diagram the Lewis symbol for an element.|
|Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge and Formulas of Ions||Explain how ions are formed according to the Octet Rule. Predict the potential charge of an atom, and define the resulting ion. Write the formula for the ion.|
|Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties||Describe how ionic compounds are formed. Define lattice energy, and list some of the properties of ionic compounds.|
|Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal and Polyatomic Ion Compounds||Name and write the formulas for all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds and compounds containing transition metals or polyatomic ions.|
|Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming and Formation||Discuss the formation of covalent compounds, and list their properties. Identify binary covalent compounds.|
|Lewis Structures: Single, Double and Triple Bonds||Draw the Lewis structures of covalent compounds with single, double and triple bonds.|
|Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions and Resonance Structures||Diagram the Lewis structures of polyatomic ions and resonance structures.|
|Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character||Determine the polarity of a bond using the periodic table. Calculate the amount of ionic character or difference in the electronegativity of a bond.|
|VSEPR Theory and Dipole Moments||Predict molecular shape, and use VSPER theory and structure to establish a molecule's polarity.|
|Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole and Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces||Discuss hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole and dipole-dipole forces, including their effects on boiling and melting points.|
|London Dispersion Forces (Van der Waal's Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces||Explain how London dispersion forces are formed and their effects on boiling and melting points.|
|Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape||Use the concepts of orbital hybridization and valence bond theory to predict molecular shape.|
|Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams||Draw and show how orbitals overlap to form sigma and pi bonds. Calculate bond order using Molecular Orbital Theory, and explain the influence of bond order on bond strength and energy.|
|Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model and Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors||Discuss the Electron-Sea Model of metallic bonding and how it explains the electrical and physical properties of metals.|
|Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules||Understand macromolecular bonding and the differences between organic and inorganic macromolecules.|
|Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers||Define the term isomer. Describe the structural differences found among alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons.|
|Functional Groups in Organic Molecules||Identify the following acids and compounds: alcohols, alkyl halides, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers and ketones.|
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
5. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
6. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
7. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
8. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
9. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
10. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
11. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
12. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
13. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
14. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
15. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
16. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
17. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
18. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
19. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
20. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
21. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
22. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
23. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry