Ch 3: Chemical Bonding for the MCAT: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Chemical Bonding chapter of this Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) Help and Review course is the simplest way to master chemical bonding. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of chemical bonding.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help preparing for the science section of the MCAT exam will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:

  • Have fallen behind in understanding the properties of ionic and covalent compounds or organic molecules.
  • Need an efficient way to learn about chemical bonding.
  • Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
  • Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
  • Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
  • Missed class time and need to catch up.
  • Can't access extra MCAT science preparation resources at school.

How it works:

  • Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
  • Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Chemical Bonding chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Chemical Bonding chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:

  • How does the Octet Rule work?
  • What is the Lewis Structure of Atoms?
  • How do ions and ionic compounds form?
  • What are some of the main properties of covalent compounds?
  • How does the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory work?
  • What role do strong and weal intermolecular forces play in chemical bonding?
  • How can valence bond theory predict molecular shape?
  • What are the different kinds of organic molecules?

22 Lessons in Chapter 3: Chemical Bonding for the MCAT: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms

1. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms

The octet rule and the Lewis dot structure both provide valuable insight into the organization of an atom's valence electrons. Explore the intricacies of the octet rule and learn about the Lewis structures of atoms.

Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions

2. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions

The octet rule explains how ions are formed. Learn about this rule and use it to predict an ion's formation, charge, and formula, and also understand the role of cations and anions in this process.

Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties

3. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties

Most of the Earth's rocks and minerals are ionic compounds. Learn the definition of an ionic compound, explore its formation and properties, and discover how lattice energy makes iconic compounds stronger.

Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds

4. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds

An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds

5. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds

Ionic compounds, both binary and polyatomic, contain positively-charged cations and negatively-charged anions. Learn how to write ionic compound formulas for binary and polyatomic compounds and explore some examples of both.

Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation

6. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation

Covalent compounds are formed when two nonmetal atoms create a covalent bond by sharing valence electrons. Learn about the formation of covalent compounds, the properties and naming of covalent compounds, and the role of valence electrons in the formation of covalent bonds.

Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds

7. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds

Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.

Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions

8. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions

Just as the Lewis dot structure can visualize molecules, it can also visualize polyatomic ions, which are ions containing multiple atoms. Explore the actions of polyatomic ions and learn how to visualize them through the lens of the Lewis dot structure.

Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance

9. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance

In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.

Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character

10. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character

A covalent bond occurs when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Learn about the two types of covalent bonds--nonpolar and polar--and understand how to predict bond polarity. Explore electronegativity and ionic character and recognize the difference between covalent and ionic bonds.

VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes

11. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes

The VSEPR theory tells us that molecules take on regular and unique shapes because valence electrons push each other away. Using this theory, you can determine what shape a molecule will take in three-dimensional space, including both electron domain geometry and molecular geometry.

Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces

12. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces

Hydrogen bonds are a critical part of many chemical processes, and they help determine the properties of things necessary for life, such as water and protein. Explore hydrogen bonds, as well as dipole-dipole forces, ion-dipole forces, strong intermolecular forces, and intramolecular forces. Understand the effects that intermolecular forces have on certain molecules' properties.

London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces

13. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces

Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.

Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape

14. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape

Hybridization is the process of mixing two or more atomic orbitals to create new covalently bonded orbitals in molecules. However, hybrid orbitals and pure atomic orbitals have different molecular shapes. Learn about orbital hybridization theory, valence bond theory, the difference between sigma and pi bonds, and how to predict the molecular shape of atomic orbitals.

Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams

15. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams

The bonds between atoms in molecules have different shapes, sizes, and strengths depending on which atoms are bonded together. Learn how to apply molecular orbital theory to determine the shapes of bonded orbitals, recognize molecular orbital diagrams, calculate bond order, and determine relative bond strength.

Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors

16. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors

Metallic bonding is known as the electron-sea model. Learn about metallic bonding with an explanation of the unique properties of metals, and understand why metals are good electrical conductors.

Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules

17. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules

Macromolecules are large molecules made up of monomers that come in two forms, including organic, which includes lipids and proteins, and inorganic, like rubber and diamond. Explore intramolecular bonding and identification of organic and inorganic macromolecules.

Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers

18. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers

Organic molecules are comprised of carbon atoms that are covalently bonded with other atoms, such as hydrogen. Learn about organic molecules, the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules, and how carbon and hydrogen can form different combinations of molecules.

Functional Groups in Organic Molecules

19. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules

Organic molecules have functional groups that determine their classification. Explore the functional groups of organic molecules, including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids, and esters, and discover the characteristics and formulas that apply to each group.

Acetal Formation: Mechanism

20. Acetal Formation: Mechanism

Acetals are molecules derived from either a ketone or aldehyde group and are chemically important in carbohydrate synthesis. In this lesson, you'll learn about the process of acetal formation and steps involved to form an acetal molecule.

Structural Isomers: Definition & Examples

21. Structural Isomers: Definition & Examples

Molecular formulas don't always tell us how the atoms are arranged within a molecule. When one formula can lead us to different arrangements of atoms, the results are referred to as structural isomers, examples of which we'll explore in this lesson.

Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity

22. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity

Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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