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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How does the Octet Rule work?
- What is the Lewis Structure of Atoms?
- How do ions and ionic compounds form?
- What are some of the main properties of covalent compounds?
- How does the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory work?
- What role do strong and weal intermolecular forces play in chemical bonding?
- How can valence bond theory predict molecular shape?
- What are the different kinds of organic molecules?
1. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
The octet rule and the Lewis dot structure both provide valuable insight into the organization of an atom's valence electrons. Explore the intricacies of the octet rule and learn about the Lewis structures of atoms.
2. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
The octet rule explains how ions are formed. Learn about this rule and use it to predict an ion's formation, charge, and formula, and also understand the role of cations and anions in this process.
3. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
Most of the Earth's rocks and minerals are ionic compounds. Learn the definition of an ionic compound, explore its formation and properties, and discover how lattice energy makes iconic compounds stronger.
4. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
5. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds
Ionic compounds, both binary and polyatomic, contain positively-charged cations and negatively-charged anions. Learn how to write ionic compound formulas for binary and polyatomic compounds and explore some examples of both.
6. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Covalent compounds are formed when two nonmetal atoms create a covalent bond by sharing valence electrons. Learn about the formation of covalent compounds, the properties and naming of covalent compounds, and the role of valence electrons in the formation of covalent bonds.
7. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
8. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
Just as the Lewis dot structure can visualize molecules, it can also visualize polyatomic ions, which are ions containing multiple atoms. Explore the actions of polyatomic ions and learn how to visualize them through the lens of the Lewis dot structure.
9. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
Lewis dot structures are diagrams of atoms and valence electrons as they are arranged in a molecule. Review Lewis dot structures and the steps for drawing them, then examine the concept of resonance and resonance structures of Lewis dot structures.
10. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
A covalent bond occurs when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Learn about the two types of covalent bonds--nonpolar and polar--and understand how to predict bond polarity. Explore electronegativity and ionic character and recognize the difference between covalent and ionic bonds.
11. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
The VSEPR theory tells us that molecules take on regular and unique shapes because valence electrons push each other away. Using this theory, you can determine what shape a molecule will take in three-dimensional space, including both electron domain geometry and molecular geometry.
12. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen bonds are a critical part of many chemical processes, and they help determine the properties of things necessary for life, such as water and protein. Explore hydrogen bonds, as well as dipole-dipole forces, ion-dipole forces, strong intermolecular forces, and intramolecular forces. Understand the effects that intermolecular forces have on certain molecules' properties.
13. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
14. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
Hybridization is the process of mixing two or more atomic orbitals to create new covalently bonded orbitals in molecules. However, hybrid orbitals and pure atomic orbitals have different molecular shapes. Learn about orbital hybridization theory, valence bond theory, the difference between sigma and pi bonds, and how to predict the molecular shape of atomic orbitals.
15. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
The bonds between atoms in molecules have different shapes, sizes, and strengths depending on which atoms are bonded together. Learn how to apply molecular orbital theory to determine the shapes of bonded orbitals, recognize molecular orbital diagrams, calculate bond order, and determine relative bond strength.
16. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Metallic bonding is known as the electron-sea model. Learn about metallic bonding with an explanation of the unique properties of metals, and understand why metals are good electrical conductors.
17. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Macromolecules are large molecules made up of monomers that come in two forms, including organic, which includes lipids and proteins, and inorganic, like rubber and diamond. Explore intramolecular bonding and identification of organic and inorganic macromolecules.
18. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Organic molecules are comprised of carbon atoms that are covalently bonded with other atoms, such as hydrogen. Learn about organic molecules, the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules, and how carbon and hydrogen can form different combinations of molecules.
19. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Organic molecules have functional groups that determine their classification. Explore the functional groups of organic molecules, including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids, and esters, and discover the characteristics and formulas that apply to each group.
20. Acetal Formation: Mechanism
Acetals are molecules derived from either a ketone or aldehyde group and are chemically important in carbohydrate synthesis. In this lesson, you'll learn about the process of acetal formation and steps involved to form an acetal molecule.
21. Structural Isomers: Definition & Examples
Structural isomers show the different ways atoms of molecules with the same formula are arranged. Learn the definition of structural isomers, and explore the three types, with examples of each: chain isomers, functional group isomers, and positional isomers.
22. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Dipoles and dipole moments occur when electrons are shared unevenly by atoms. Explore the world of molecule polarity, defining covalent bonds, electronegativity, dipoles, and dipole moments, learning how to find a dipole moment, and distinguishing between polar and nonpolar molecules.
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