About This Chapter
Bonding in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you'll learn how atoms, the most basic form of matter, are attracted to each other and develop chemical bonds. You'll also find out how atoms can be chemically transformed into ions by gaining or losing the subatomic particles known as electrons. As you progress through the videos, the instructor will introduce you to several scientific theories, including Octet and VSPER (valance shell electron pair repulsion) rules, which can be used to describe the creation of ions and predict molecular shape.
In this chapter, you'll also receive some scientific drawing lessons, learn how to create symbols of elements and diagram the behavior and structure of electrons in molecules. Carbon-based or organic molecules will also be discussed as well as why 'seas' of electrons make metals such good electrical conductors. When you have finished watching the videos and taking the self-assessment quizzes, you should be able to:
- Identify and discuss the different types of chemical bonds
- Understand the differences between polar and non-polar molecules
- Explain how the Octet rules can be used to explain the formation of ions
- Diagram Lewis structures of covalent compounds and ions
- See how intermolecular forces, such as dipole-dipole, can affect boiling and melting points
- Use scientific theories to predict molecular shape
- Understand atomic orbitals and how combined orbitals can lead to hybridization
- Write a formula for an ionic compound.
|Chemical Bonds I: Covalent||Define a molecule, and identify chemical, covalent, double and triple bonds.|
|Chemical Bonds II: Ionic||Understand how ions are created and what is meant by electronegativity. Identify anions, cations and ionic bonds.|
|Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent||Describe polar and non-polar covalent bonds.|
|Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen||Discuss hydrogen and polar covalent bonds.|
|The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms||Explain how to apply the Octet Rule, and draw the Lewis symbol of an element.|
|Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge and Formulas of Ions||Use the Octet Rule to describe how ions are formed. Predict the potential charge of an atom when it becomes an ion. Identify the ion, and write its formula.|
|Lewis Structures: Single, Double and Triple Bonds||Diagram the Lewis structures of covalent compounds containing single, double and triple bonds.|
|Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions and Resonance Structures||Draw the Lewis structures of polyatomic ions and resonance structures.|
|Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character||Use the periodic table to determine the polarity of a bond. Determine the amount of ionic character of a bond.|
|VSEPR Theory and Dipole Moments||Predict molecular shape, and determine a molecules polarity using VSPER theory and structure.|
|Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole and Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces||Describe ion-dipole forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding and their effects on boiling and melting points.|
|London Dispersion Forces (Van der Waal's Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces||Discuss how London dispersion forces are created and their effects on boiling and melting points.|
|Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape||Explain how valence bond theory and hybridization can be used to predict molecular shape.|
|Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams||Diagram the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use Molecular Orbital Theory to determine bond order. Explain how bond order affects bond strength and energy.|
|Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model and Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors||Describe the electron-sea model of metallic bonding and how it can be used to explain why metals are good electrical conductors, shiny and malleable.|
|Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules||Understand the bonding that takes place in macromolecules, and identify organic and inorganic macromolecules.|
|Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers||Define isomer. Distinguish among the structures found in alkanes, alkenes, aklynes and aromatic hydrocarbons.|
|Functional Groups in Organic Molecules||Identify alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters and ethers based on the functional group present.|
|Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary and Polyatomic Compounds||Write equations for binary and polyatomic compounds.|
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
5. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
6. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
7. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
8. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
9. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
10. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
11. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
12. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
13. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
14. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
15. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
16. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
17. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
18. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
19. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
20. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
21. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds
In this lesson, you will learn how to write the chemical formulas for both binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds when you are given only the name of the compound. You will see that it is actually quite simple when you learn the steps described in this lesson.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Newton's Laws of Motion
- Energy and Momentum
- Thermodynamics in Physical Science
- Waves and Optics
- Electric Power & Electricity
- Properties of Matter in Chemistry
- Kinetics in Chemistry
- Elements, Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions
- Gases & Gas Laws
- The Periodic Table
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids in Chemistry
- Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
- Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry
- Chemistry Lab Basics
- DSST Informational Resources
- DSST Principles of Physical Science Flashcards