About This Chapter
Botany - Chapter Summary
This chapter explores the study of plants, breaking the topic down as a discipline and delving into the different components of plants which define them in the biological world. The lessons in this chapter describe parts you'll recognize like leaves, stems, and roots, in addition to detailing the finer details of those structures, like their tissue types. Use the quiz after each lesson to test your mastery of the topics covered. If you need assistance, feel free to reach out to one of our subject-matter experts. After completing the chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Outline history of the study of plants
- Identify different plant parts and explain their functions
- Discuss plant hormones and how chemicals control their growth and reproduction
- Explain the life cycles of plants
- Define plant homeostasis
- Compare types of plant growth
1. Botany in the 17th & 18th Centuries
In this lesson, we'll trace Western thought about plant physiology and discuss how plants gain weight, and how we know. We'll talk about how scientists figured out the mystery of photosynthesis and who they were, and then you can test your knowledge with a quiz.
2. The Plant Stem: Function, Types & Parts
After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain what a plant stem is, describe the various parts and what they do, and name the two main types of stems. A short quiz will follow.
3. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
4. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
5. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
6. Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction
We most often think of hormones as things that control our actions and development. However, even plants have these chemicals to help regulate growth and reproduction.
7. Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth
Animals aren't the only things that can respond to the environment. While plants may seem inanimate at times, they, too, can respond to the environment in order to better survive.
8. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
9. Life Cycles of Different Types of Plants
From spores to gametophytes to flowers, plants have many different life cycles. This lesson will focus on the life cycles of three groups of plants: the flowering angiosperms, the ferns and the mosses.
10. An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction
When you think of how plants reproduce, you probably think of flowers. We will look at how flowering plants use specialized reproductive structures to complete an alternation of generations life cycle.
11. What is Seed Germination? - Definition, Process, Steps & Factors
This lesson is about seed germination, the process of seeds growing into plants. In this lesson, we'll go over the steps of germination, and what factors influence how seeds germinate.
12. Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs
Not all plants make attractive flowers in order to reproduce. Some plants will not make seeds and pollen either. These plants have other ways to create new offspring. We will look at a few key methods of vegetative propagation.
13. Homeostasis in Plants
In this lesson, we'll discuss what homeostasis is and how plants achieve homeostasis. We'll also talk about how plants handle heat, water, and nutrients and how they respond to their environment.
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