About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in Campbell Biology's Circulation and Gas Exchange chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the circulation and gas exchange topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students Will Learn:
- Types of circulatory systems
- Anatomy of the human vascular system
- Function of the heart
- Types of blood vessels
- Role of baroreceptors in blood pressure regulation
- Anatomy and function of the lymphatic system
- Components of blood plasma
- Functions of blood cells and platelets
- Process of blood coagulation in healing wounds
- Types of cardiovascular disease
- Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease
- Gas exchange and the effect of partial pressure gradients
- Role of the respiratory surface in efficient gas exchange
- Gross anatomy of the respiratory system
- Respiratory systems of mammals, amphibians, and birds
- Types of respiratory pigments
- Process of transporting carbon dioxide in the blood
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1. Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems
Circulatory systems are essential for survival in animals of all kinds. Explore the different types of circulatory systems, such as open and closed systems, discover how blood flow can be manipulated, and learn how these systems deliver nutrients and remove waste from cells.
2. Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System
The human vascular system carries blood through vessels known as arteries, veins, and capillaries. Explore the human circulatory system, learn how blood moves through the body, and discover the roles of angiogenesis and the lymphatic system.
3. Circulatory System III: The Heart
The heart lies at the center of a vertebrate's circulatory system. Learn how to define the heart, explore two-, three-, and four-chambered hearts, and discover how the human heart functions.
4. Blood Vessels: Arteries, Capillaries & More
Blood vessels enable blood to flow through the body. Learn about blood vessels, including arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, and venules. Understand the functions of blood vessels and explore how blood backflow is prevented.
5. Regulation of Blood Pressure: Short Term Regulation & Baroreceptors
Learn how baroreceptors monitor and regulate the body's blood pressure. Explore the cardiac cycle, diastole, systole, mean arterial pressure, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, baroreceptor reflex, and orthostatic hypotension.
6. Functions of the Lymphatic System
A healthy lymphatic system is necessary for a properly functioning cardiovascular system. Learn about the lymphatic system (lymphatic capillaries, lymph nodes, lymph, lymphatic vessels, & lymphatic drainage), the functions of each structure within the lymphatic system, and how edema occurs if the lymphatic system fails to return leaked fluids to the blood.
7. What Is Blood Plasma? - Function & Components
Making up more than half of the composition of blood, blood plasma is primarily made of water and plays an important role in transporting nutrients, electrolytes, and other substances. Learn more about the function and components of blood plasma.
8. Functions of Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells & Platelets
The blood is a connective tissue and it is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets and these cells each have a specific function that helps the blood transport minerals, protect the body from germs, and heal wounds. Learn about the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
9. Blood Coagulation and Wound Healing
After suffering a wound, the body does everything it can to promote blood clotting and, ultimately, wound healing. The general term hemostasis refers to the stoppage of bleeding, and it just one of the many factors, others being platelets and thromboxane A2, that are essential for proper wound healing. This lesson details the process of blood coagulation, from the clotting factors to the coagulation cascade.
10. Different Kinds of Cardiovascular Disease: Definitions & Examples
With so many working parts, the human heart can be affected by many different kinds of cardiovascular disease. Explore the definition of cardiovascular disease and examples such as valvular heart disease, septal defects, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and coronary heart disease.
11. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors & Preventative Strategies
Cardiovascular disease can be caused by many different risk factors. Explore how drinking, smoking, poor nutrition, diabetes, high blood pressure, and a lack of exercise contribute to this disease, discover the uncontrollable risk factors that play a part, and review the preventative strategies that keep the heart healthy.
12. Diagnosing and Treating Cardiovascular Disease
Understanding the symptoms of cardiovascular disease can help patients recognize when it is time to seek help and clinicians in diagnosing the problem. Learn about the different types of diagnostic techniques, including radiograph or X-ray, CT scan, MRI, angiography, ultrasound, and ECG, and some of the available treatment options, such as heart medications and angioplasty.
13. Gas Exchange: Diffusion & Partial Pressure Gradients
Using diffusion and partial pressure, gas exchange, the process of moving oxygen from the air into the blood across a respiratory membrane, is necessary for normal function. Explore the way gas exchange happens, partial pressure gradients, the composition of alveolar air, Dalton's law, and Henry's law.
14. The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency
Gas exchange efficiency occurs due to a thin respiratory surface or membrane that contains many alveoli cells. Learn about the respiratory surface and factors that make gas exchange efficient, as well as how gases are lipid-soluble.
15. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones
The respiratory system ensures the body has sufficient oxygen while removing carbon dioxide. Learn about the gross anatomy of the airway and lungs, including the upper and lower respiratory system, and explore the conducting and respiratory zones by reviewing air movement and gas exchange in the respiratory zones.
16. Amphibian, Bird & Mammal Respiratory Systems
The respiratory systems in different animals function differently, each using complex modes of maintaining oxygen levels. Learn how respiration occurs in amphibians, birds, mammals, and humans.
17. Respiratory Pigments: Animals & Explanation
Respiratory pigments are molecules that increase the carrying capacity of oxygen in blood. Explore hemoglobin, the most common respiratory pigment, and organisms that do not use hemoglobin.
18. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in two different forms, bicarbonate and carbaminohemoglobin. In this lesson, dive into carbon dioxide transportation in the blood, in the lungs, and in metabolizing tissues.
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Other chapters within the Campbell Biology: Online Textbook Help course
- Campbell Biology Chapter 1: The Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
- Campbell Biology Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 3: Water and Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
- Campbell Biology Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell
- Campbell Biology Chapter 7: Membrane Structure and Function
- Campbell Biology Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism
- Campbell Biology Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
- Campbell Biology Chapter 10: Photosynthesis
- Campbell Biology Chapter 11: Cell Communication
- Campbell Biology Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle
- Campbell Biology Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
- Campbell Biology Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
- Campbell Biology Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
- Campbell Biology Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Campbell Biology Chapter 17: Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein
- Campbell Biology Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
- Campbell Biology Chapter 19: Viruses
- Campbell Biology Chapter 20: DNA Tools and Biotechnology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 21: Genomes and Their Evolution
- Campbell Biology Chapter 22: Descent With Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations
- Campbell Biology Chapter 24: The Origin of Species
- Campbell Biology Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth
- Campbell Biology Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea
- Campbell Biology Chapter 28: Protists
- Campbell Biology Chapter 29: Plant Diversity I
- Campbell Biology Chapter 30: Plant Diversity II
- Campbell Biology Chapter 31: Fungi
- Campbell Biology Chapter 32: An Overview of Animal Diversity
- Campbell Biology Chapter 33: An Introduction to Invertebrates
- Campbell Biology Chapter 34: The Origin of Evolution of Vertebrates
- Campbell Biology Chapter 35: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
- Campbell Biology Chapter 36: Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants
- Campbell Biology Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
- Campbell Biology Chapter 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals
- Campbell Biology Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
- Campbell Biology Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition
- Campbell Biology Chapter 43: The Immune System
- Campbell Biology Chapter 44: Osmoregulation and Excretion
- Campbell Biology Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System
- Campbell Biology Chapter 46: Animal Reproduction
- Campbell Biology Chapter 47: Animal Development
- Campbell Biology Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
- Campbell Biology Chapter 49: Nervous Systems
- Campbell Biology Chapter 50: Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
- Campbell Biology Chapter 51: Animal Behavior
- Campbell Biology Chapter 52: An Introduction to the Ecology of the Biosphere
- Campbell Biology Chapter 53: Population Ecology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 54: Community Ecology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 56: Conservation Biology and Global Change