About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in Campbell Biology's Animal Reproduction chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the animal reproduction topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students Will Learn:
- Animal reproduction and reproductive cycles
- How animal sexual reproduction patterns vary
- Animal fertilization internally and externally
- Anatomy of the male and female reproductive system
- Structures of the male HPG axis
- Ovarian cycle and the female HPG axis
- Phases of the uterine cycle
- Processes of fertilization and zygote formation
- Oocyte activation and cell cleavage
- Steps involved in embryo implantation and placenta formation
- Fetal development in the first, second, and third trimesters
- Types of contraception methods
- Causes of miscarriage and infertility
- Methods of abortion
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1. Asexual & Sexual Reproduction in Animals
It's common knowledge that animals reproduce, and there are two main types of reproduction. Discover the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction and the processes of each.
2. Reproductive Cycles of Animals
Animals go through reproductive cycles, whereby their genetic code is passed to subsequent generations. Understand the 'circle of life' through concepts of cell division, maturation, meiosis and mitosis, and adulthood related to animal reproduction.
3. Variation in Patterns of Animal Sexual Reproduction
Explore the variation in patterns of animal sexual reproduction that have aided survival through evolution. Examine stereotypical reproduction, discover the role of hermaphroditism, and understand how sex reversal has emerged.
4. Internal & External Fertilization in the Animal Kingdom
Explore how methods of internal and external fertilization are found throughout the animal kingdom. Review what fertilization is, examine internal and external fertilization, and discover the role of pheromones.
5. Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy
The male reproductive system includes various structures and pathways to transport sperm. Learn about the anatomy, organs, and functions of the male reproductive system.
6. Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy
The female reproductive system has multiple structures with specific purposes and functions. Learn about the internal anatomy of the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, cervix, uterine tubes, and uterus.
7. External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
The external anatomy of the female reproductive system involves six main structures developed from the same tissues that make the male's external genitals. Learn about the skin folds in the vulva and explore the female erectile structures, including the clitoris and vestibular bulbs.
8. The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction
Male reproduction is controlled by hormones. Learn about this process, including how males change as they experience puberty. Explore the HPG Axis, the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, LH, FSH, gonads, testosterone, and inhibin.
9. HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle
The female HPG axis involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and female gonads (or ovaries) and allows the brain to communicate with the ovaries using hormones. Explore the function of the HPG axis, GnRH patterns, LH and FSH hormones, and HPG signaling.
10. The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes
Hormonal changes trigger the phases the female reproduction system goes through over the course of about 28 days. Explore how the phases and endometrial changes specific to the uterine cycle prepare the female body for the implantation of a fertilized egg.
11. Fertilization and Zygote Formation: Definition and Processes
Fertilization is a process that occurs when a female's egg and a male's sperm are fused. Learn about the steps of fertilization and zygote formation. Also, understand all the main components to the fertilization process like gametes and oocytes.
12. Fertilization: Oocyte Activation & Cell Cleavage
The process of fertilization occurs when the sperm cell successfully joins with an egg cell, triggering oocyte activation and starting the nine-month process of cell cleavage. Learn about the cells involved in sexual reproduction and understand the process of fertilization and zygote development.
13. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
All mammals begin as fertilized embryos. Learn what happens to a mammalian embryo when it is fertilized, understand how implantation occurs, and explore how the placenta forms.
14. Fetal Development in the First Trimester: Stages & Timeline
Fetal development in the first trimester occurs in stages with new organs forming about every four weeks. Explore the first trimester timeline and learn about embryogenesis, cell differentiation, organogenesis, and the growth progression of an embryo.
15. Second Trimester Fetal Development
The second trimester of fetal development includes months four to six as the fetus grows. Review the first trimester and explore how the fetus develops in size, movement, organs, and systems during the second trimester timeline.
16. Third Trimester Fetal Development
In the last three months of gestation mark periods of rapid growth for fetuses as their organs and senses mature and refine. Explore the third trimester of fetal development: the seventh, eighth and ninth months of pregnancy.
17. Contraception Methods: Types & Examples
Contraception, also known as birth control, refers to the act of preventing pregnancy. Learn about different types and examples of contraception methods, such as withdrawal, barrier, hormonal, and surgical methods, as well as abstinence.
18. Abortion and Miscarriage: Methods and Causes
There are many common misconceptions on the differences between abortion and miscarriage. Learn about what causes a miscarriage and the different types of abortions.
19. Infertility: Causes and Potential Options
Infertility is the state of being unable to conceive or achieve a pregnancy. Learn about the definition, causes, and reasons of infertility in males and females, and explore treatment options available for this condition.
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Other chapters within the Campbell Biology: Online Textbook Help course
- Campbell Biology Chapter 1: The Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
- Campbell Biology Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 3: Water and Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
- Campbell Biology Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell
- Campbell Biology Chapter 7: Membrane Structure and Function
- Campbell Biology Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism
- Campbell Biology Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
- Campbell Biology Chapter 10: Photosynthesis
- Campbell Biology Chapter 11: Cell Communication
- Campbell Biology Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle
- Campbell Biology Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
- Campbell Biology Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
- Campbell Biology Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
- Campbell Biology Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Campbell Biology Chapter 17: Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein
- Campbell Biology Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
- Campbell Biology Chapter 19: Viruses
- Campbell Biology Chapter 20: DNA Tools and Biotechnology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 21: Genomes and Their Evolution
- Campbell Biology Chapter 22: Descent With Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations
- Campbell Biology Chapter 24: The Origin of Species
- Campbell Biology Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth
- Campbell Biology Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
- Campbell Biology Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea
- Campbell Biology Chapter 28: Protists
- Campbell Biology Chapter 29: Plant Diversity I
- Campbell Biology Chapter 30: Plant Diversity II
- Campbell Biology Chapter 31: Fungi
- Campbell Biology Chapter 32: An Overview of Animal Diversity
- Campbell Biology Chapter 33: An Introduction to Invertebrates
- Campbell Biology Chapter 34: The Origin of Evolution of Vertebrates
- Campbell Biology Chapter 35: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
- Campbell Biology Chapter 36: Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants
- Campbell Biology Chapter 37: Soil and Plant Nutrition
- Campbell Biology Chapter 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals
- Campbell Biology Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
- Campbell Biology Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition
- Campbell Biology Chapter 42: Circulation and Gas Exchange
- Campbell Biology Chapter 43: The Immune System
- Campbell Biology Chapter 44: Osmoregulation and Excretion
- Campbell Biology Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System
- Campbell Biology Chapter 47: Animal Development
- Campbell Biology Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
- Campbell Biology Chapter 49: Nervous Systems
- Campbell Biology Chapter 50: Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
- Campbell Biology Chapter 51: Animal Behavior
- Campbell Biology Chapter 52: An Introduction to the Ecology of the Biosphere
- Campbell Biology Chapter 53: Population Ecology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 54: Community Ecology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology
- Campbell Biology Chapter 56: Conservation Biology and Global Change