About This Chapter
Categories of Social Difference - Chapter Summary
By reviewing this chapter on categories of social difference, you can refresh your knowledge of topics like the history of ethnic groups in America, facts about sexual orientation, and concepts surrounding social class. You can also gain a better understanding of the concept of hypodescent and the racial formation theory. By the end of the chapter, you should feel confident and prepared to:
- Explain the class system in the United States
- Define race and ethnicity
- Discuss the significance of race in biological and sociocultural terms
- Provide examples of ethnic groups
- Discuss often misunderstood aspects of sex and gender
- Recall social stratification layers within the American class system
- Describe the impact of disabilities on the individual, their family, and society
- Explain the impact that age has on social status
These convenient lessons can help you easily grasp concepts related to categories of social difference. You can study all the lessons in order, or just focus on the subjects you need to review most. A brief self-assessment quiz is available for each lesson, which can verify your ability to remember the information covered.
1. What Is a Social Class? - Definition & Concept
The United States has what is known as a class system, and it is composed of various social classes based on a variety of dimensions. Let's learn more about the class system of the United States, and test our knowledge with a quiz.
2. Race and Ethnicity Definitions: Social Minority vs. Social Majority
This lesson introduces concepts important to understanding race and ethnicity. First, a distinction is made between 'race' and 'ethnicity.' Next, the idea of a social minority is defined, along with distinction and subordination. Finally, U.S. trends regarding minority influence are outlined.
3. Racial Formation Theory: Definition & Overview
What constitutes a race of people? This lesson asks and answers the question about the formation of race as a construct. This lesson will look at how sociologists, Michael Omi and Howard Winant, researched racial formation and determined how the modern concept came about.
4. Hypodescent: Definition & Examples
Race has been an important idea in world history, but it's been understood in different ways. In this lesson, we'll explore the concept of hypodescent and see how it's impacted people across time.
5. Biological & Sociocultural Significance of Race
The concept of race is powerful, troubling, encouraging, and confusing. In this lesson, we will talk about race in biological and sociocultural terms, and see how this has changed throughout history.
6. Ethnic Groups: Definition, List & Examples
Ethnicity can be a challenging or confusing concept to describe. Through this lesson, you will learn a broad definition of ethnicity and explore some of the components that are used to comprise and identify different ethnic groups.
7. Ethnic Groups in America
What does ethnicity mean in the United States? In this lesson, we'll be talking about the ethnic composition of America and see what this meant historically as well as today.
8. Sex and Gender in Society: Differences, Preferences & Characteristics
You might think you know everything about the differences between boys and girls, but this lesson covers less commonly understood topics. After defining sex vs. gender, it covers less common sexual identities, such as intersexed and transgender individuals. In addition, theories on sexual orientation are covered, including both categorical and continuum perspectives of sexual interest.
9. Sexual Orientation: Definition & Facts
Studying sexual orientation can help you understand how a person's feelings and sense of identity are involved. It may or may not be evident in the person's appearance or behavior. Explore this subject and test yourself with a quiz.
10. American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes
In this lesson, we discuss the American class system and the social stratification layers that exist within each class. We also differentiate between income and wealth and discuss how they relate to social status.
11. Impact of Disabilities on Self & Others Across the Life Span
Individuals with disabilities often have special needs and face unique challenges throughout life. This lesson will examine the impact of disabilities on individuals, families and society.
12. The Relationship Between Age & Social Status
As people age, they sometimes feel like society doesn't value them anymore. In this lesson, we'll explain the relationship between age and social status, including looking at age stratification and modernization theory.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Cultural Diversity: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Introduction to Culture
- Culture-Related Concepts
- Social Construction & Power
- Ideologies of Social Difference
- Stratification of Difference in Society
- Direct & Indirect Discrimination
- Theories of Prejudice
- Relations in the Multicultural Society
- Native Americans in the U.S.
- African Americans in the U.S.
- Latin Americans in the U.S.
- Asian, Jewish & Middle Eastern Americans
- Collective Responses to Dominance & Inequality
- Inequality & Key Social Movements
- Dominance & Legislative Processes
- UExcel Cultural Diversity Flashcards