About This Chapter
Cell Anatomy & Metabolism - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Explore cellular functions in this chapter, which includes lessons on reactions that take place during metabolism, the impact of feasting and fasting on cells and why our bodies need protein synthesis. The instructors who lead these lessons will define key terms like glycogenesis, metabolism, oxidation and more. They'll provide an in-depth look at lipogenesis and alcohol metabolism and teach you the differences between LDLs and HDLs. At the end of this chapter, you'll be familiar with the following:
- Anabolism and catabolism
- Reduction reactions in metabolism
- Oxidative phosphorylation
|The Cell: Structure & Function||Introduces the functions of cellular components. Describes a cell's structure.|
|Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples||Defines metabolism and distinguishes between anabolism and catabolism. Offers examples of each.|
|Oxidation & Reduction Reactions in Metabolism: Process & Significance||Describes the roles that oxidation and reduction reactions play in the metabolism process and explains why they're important.|
|Nutritional Effects of Feasting & Fasting on Cells||Discusses what happens during feasting and fasting. Explains how these actions impact cells.|
|Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation||Defines each term and shows how they differ.|
|Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis||Examines each of these processes in detail and provides definitions for each.|
|Protein Synthesis in Cells: Process & Importance||Explains why body cells need protein synthesis. Describes the synthesis process.|
|Lipogenesis: Process & Function||Explores the differences between LDLs and HDLs. Discusses how their structures differ and explains the unique roles each plays in the body.|
|Alcohol Metabolism: Process & Effects||Details the process of alcohol metabolism. Explains its effects on the body.|
1. The Cell: Structure & Function
The cell is a small, but complex structure. Take a look inside the outer plasma membrane of a cell and discover the functions of some common cellular components, including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, in this lesson.
2. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples
Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.
3. Oxidation & Reduction Reactions in the Metabolism: Process & Significance
Oxidation and reduction reactions, collectively known as redox reactions, take place in body cells and are important for the production of energy, namely ATP. Oxidation involves the loss of electrons and reduction involves the gain of electrons.
4. Effects of Feasting & Fasting on Cells
Your cells use the nutrients from the foods you eat to fuel vital functions. If you eat too much (feast), excessive nutrients get pushed into storage. If you eat too little or not at all (fast), stored nutrients can be pulled out of storage and used to meet your body's needs.
5. Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Your body is always using energy. This energy, in the form of ATP, is generated within your cells through substrate-level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation. Learn about these processes and the role mitochondria play in making energy.
6. Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis
Your body uses processes to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. Learn how your body decreases blood glucose levels through glycogenesis and how it boosts glucose levels through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in this lesson.
7. Protein Synthesis in Cells: Process & Importance
The DNA of the cell contains the blueprints for all the proteins in the body. These blueprints become proteins with the help of RNA and ribosomes. Follow along with this lesson to learn about the two major phases of protein synthesis: transcription and translation.
8. Lipogenesis: Process & Function
Lipogenesis is the process your body uses to convert carbohydrates into fatty acids, which are the building blocks of fats. Fat is an efficient way for your body to store energy. Learn about the importance of acetyl-CoA and insulin in lipogenesis.
9. Alcohol Metabolism: Process & Effects
Alcohol is broken down in the liver with the help of enzymes. Learn how alcohol is converted to the toxic byproduct acetaldehyde before being oxidized into acetate with help from the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in this lesson.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Nutrition 101: Science of Nutrition course
- Introduction to Nutrition
- Healthy Diet Planning
- Role of Carbohydrates in Nutrition
- Role of Lipids in Nutrition
- Protein's Role in Nutrition
- Role of Water in Nutrition
- Minerals in Nutrition
- Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency & Toxicity
- How Vitamins Support Nutrition
- Anatomy of the Digestive System
- Nutrient Digestion, Absorption & Transport
- Weight Management & Energy Needs
- Eating Disorders: Risk to Nutrition
- Physical Activity & Nutrition
- Studying for Nutrition 101