About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering MCAT material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn higher scores. You're in the right place if you:
- Have fallen behind in understanding the structure and function of a cell's organelles or the stages of cell division
- Need an efficient way to learn about cell biology and the cell cycle
- Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools
- Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Experience difficulty understanding your teachers
- Missed class time and need to catch up
- Can't access extra MCAT review resources at school
How it works:
- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the cell biology and cell cycle chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the cell biology and cell cycle chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any cell biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What is the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane?
- How are active and passive transport in cells different?
- What occurs during endocytosis and exocytosis?
- What is the structure of the nucleus?
- How do ribosomes function?
- What are the components of the endomembrane system?
- What do microtubules and microfilaments do?
- How are mitochondria structured?
- What is the process of cellular respiration?
- What are the stages in the cell cycle?
- How do mitosis and meiosis differ?
- What are nondisjunction and aneuploidy?
1. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
2. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
3. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
4. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
5. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
6. The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location
The ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for decoding your DNA. In this lesson, we'll learn about ribosome structure, function and location - characteristics that make it a very good genetic translator.
7. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
8. The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments
In this lesson, we'll learn about the cytoskeleton of your cells. This network of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments helps different types of cells maintain a unique set of characteristics, including shape and movement.
9. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
10. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
11. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
12. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
13. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
14. How a Cell Recognizes an Injury
Cells can suffer damage resulting from infection, trauma, or injury. When this happens, cells must decide how to respond for the good of the body. In this lesson, we'll learn how a cell recognizes injury and uses apoptosis, necrosis, and other signals to die or even kill itself.
15. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
16. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
17. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
18. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
19. Osteocytes: Function & Definition
In this lesson, you will learn what osteocytes are and why they are important to bone health. You will discover how osteocytes contribute to metabolic activities outside your skeleton. At the end of the lesson, a quiz will test your knowledge.
20. Flagella: Definition, Structure & Functions
One of the more dramatic ways that single-celled organisms get around is a whip-like structure called a flagellum. Learn the ways that different organisms make use of their flagella to move around their microscopic world.
21. Apoptosis in the Cell Cycle & Cancer
Learn about natural cell death, called apoptosis, in normal cells and cancer cells, as well as treatments that are being developed to treat cancer by controlling apoptosis.
22. What Is Cell Differentiation? - Process, Importance & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn how your cells become specialized. This specialization of cells allows them to perform different functions and create different parts of your body.
23. An Overview of Cell Communication
Cellular communication is an important process that allows cells to pass signals to one another. In this video lesson, you will be introduced to the process of cellular communication, identifying the three steps of cellular signaling in organisms.
24. Theories of Aging: Rate-of-Living, Cellular & Programmed-Cell-Death
This lesson focuses on various theories of how living cells age and die, resulting in the people with those cells aging and dying. We'll look at broad definitions, as well as some of the popular sub-theories.
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