About This Chapter
Biology: Cell Biology & Cell Cycle - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, instructors help you navigate the complex subjects of cell biology and the cell cycle. Whether you are an expert in cellular science looking to refresh your memory or find this a particularly difficult area in which to study, these videos will help bring you to the next level. Spending some time with our expert instructors, you'll study the following topics and more:
- The cell membrane's fluid mosaic model
- Passive and active cell transport
- Endocytosis and exocytosis
- Structures and functions of the cell: nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, cellular respiration, and the endomembrane system
- The cell cycle, including mitosis and meiosis as well as injury recognition and response
- Apoptosis in the cell cycle, cancer, and theories of aging
- Cell differentiation and communication
- Nondisjunction and aneuploidy
This is a rather large chapter, but you'll find the time flying, as the videos are brief and to-the-point, but also interesting and informative. The instructors provide in-depth information as well as real-life examples to aid in material retention. After each video take a minute to complete its related quiz to test your memory and synthesis of concepts. At the end of the chapter you'll also find an exam to see how well you retained the information overall and see which areas you may need to return to in the videos for further study.
1. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
2. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
3. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
4. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
5. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
6. The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location
The ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for decoding your DNA. In this lesson, we'll learn about ribosome structure, function and location - characteristics that make it a very good genetic translator.
7. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
8. The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments
In this lesson, we'll learn about the cytoskeleton of your cells. This network of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments helps different types of cells maintain a unique set of characteristics, including shape and movement.
9. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
10. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
11. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
12. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
13. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
14. How a Cell Recognizes an Injury
Cells can suffer damage resulting from infection, trauma, or injury. When this happens, cells must decide how to respond for the good of the body. In this lesson, we'll learn how a cell recognizes injury and uses apoptosis, necrosis, and other signals to die or even kill itself.
15. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
16. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
17. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
18. Apoptosis in the Cell Cycle & Cancer
Learn about natural cell death, called apoptosis, in normal cells and cancer cells, as well as treatments that are being developed to treat cancer by controlling apoptosis.
19. What Is Cell Differentiation? - Process, Importance & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn how your cells become specialized. This specialization of cells allows them to perform different functions and create different parts of your body.
20. An Overview of Cell Communication
Cellular communication is an important process that allows cells to pass signals to one another. In this video lesson, you will be introduced to the process of cellular communication, identifying the three steps of cellular signaling in organisms.
21. Theories of Aging: Rate-of-Living, Cellular & Programmed-Cell-Death
This lesson focuses on various theories of how living cells age and die, resulting in the people with those cells aging and dying. We'll look at broad definitions, as well as some of the popular sub-theories.
22. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
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