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- Explain how phospholipid bilayers can be both hydrophobic and hydrophilic.
- Take a look at the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane.
- Describe active and passive transport in cells.
- Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis across the cell membrane.
- Discuss the structure of the nucleus.
- Describe the structure and function of ribosomes.
- Explain the functions of the endomembrane system.
- Learn about the structures of the cytoskeleton.
- Describe the structure of mitochondria.
- Become familiar with chloroplast structure.
- Name the various plant cell structures.
- Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
- Describe the lytic and lysogenic cycles of viruses.
1. How a Phospholipid Bilayer Is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic
In this lesson, we will learn what gives phospholipids a dual personality. How can this molecule be both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and why is this important to a cell?
2. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
3. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
4. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
5. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
6. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
7. The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location
The ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for decoding your DNA. In this lesson, we'll learn about ribosome structure, function and location - characteristics that make it a very good genetic translator.
8. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
9. The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments
In this lesson, we'll learn about the cytoskeleton of your cells. This network of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments helps different types of cells maintain a unique set of characteristics, including shape and movement.
10. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
11. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
12. Plant Cell Structures: The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole
In this lesson, we'll talk about some of the things that make plant cells so different from our cells. In addition to being mean, green photosynthesizing machines, plant cells have cell walls and central vacuoles to make them unique!
13. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. Eukaryotes organize different functions within specialized membrane-bound compartments called organelles. These structures do not exist in prokaryotes.
14. Eukarya: Definition, Characteristics & Examples
What makes us so complex? How are we any different from simple single-celled bacteria? It's because we're further up the evolutionary chain; we're examples of eukaryotes. In this lesson, we'll define Eukarya and eukaryotes and explore their characteristics.
15. Francesco Redi: Biography, Experiments & Cell Theory
Francesco Redi was a 17th-century Italian scientist whose most notable contribution to scientific knowledge was his work discrediting the notion that life can come from non-living things. In this lesson, learn more about his life and work.
16. Metaphase Plate: Definition & Concept
In cell mitosis and meiosis we have different phases that the cell proceeds through. In one of these phases we notice an imaginary line called the Metaphase Plate. We will discuss this plate further.
17. Pericycle Cells: Function & Concept
Pericycles cells are a part of the tissue inside plants that offer support and nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn the terms for these tissues and cells as well as the function they play in helping plants to thrive.
18. Proteoglycans: Definition, Function & Structure
In this lesson, you'll explore the definition and purpose of proteoglycans, specialized molecules found around cells and in the joints of our bodies. Learn about their structure and functions, then take a quick quiz to test your understanding.
19. What is Adenosine Triphosphate? - Definition, Function & Structure
In this lesson, you'll find out why scientists refer to the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as energy currency. You'll also learn about the production, structure, and function of ATP through examples and illustrations. A brief quiz, complete with explanations of correct answers, follows the lesson.
20. What is Cell Theory? - Definition, Timeline & Parts
Many scientists and the discovery of the microscope contributed to new ideas about living things. One important idea is cell theory, which draws on the work of many scientists in the past to describe cells and how they are organized in living things.
21. Cytoskeleton: Structure & Function
In this lesson you will discover what the cytoskeleton is, what it's composed of and the various things the cytoskeleton does for the cell. You will also discover a little bit about the importance of the cytoskeleton.
22. Cytoskeletons in Animal Cells
The word cytoskeleton literally means 'skeleton of the cell,' and just like the human skeleton provides the body with support and structure, the cytoskeleton does the same thing, plus a lot more, on a much smaller scale inside almost every single cell in the body!
23. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA): Definition & Testing
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are cellular proteins that can trigger an immune system response. Each person has a unique HLA complex, so matching potential organ donors and recipients requires testing and comparing each person's HLA complex.
24. What Are Aberrant Cells? - Definition & Examples
What happens when your cells harm you instead of help you? This lesson discusses examples of just such aberrant cells, including virus infected cells and cancer cells.
25. What Is Actin Treadmilling?
How does a cell move around without arms or legs? Cells have to move, to get to food, or to escape unpleasant places. This lesson will discuss how a cell can use a process called actin treadmilling to get to where it needs to go.
26. Basal Lamina: Definition & Function
Did you know your skin is made of several different layers? In this lesson we'll discuss the definition and function of the basal lamina, which is also known as the 'basement membrane'.
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