About This Chapter
Cell Cycle & Cell Division - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, our experienced instructors provide a series of informative lessons on cell division and the cell cycle. You'll study basic genetics, the structure and function of DNA, the phases of the cell cycle and how DNA is packaged. The chapter can also help you:
- Outline the parts of a chromosome and explain their roles
- Detail the formation and function of the mitotic spindle
- Identify the stages of mitosis
- Explain the process of meiosis, including the stages of meiosis I and II
- Discuss how meiosis and fertilization promote genetic variance
- Describe the importance of cell differentiation
- Understand the causes of mutation and DNA damage-mutagens
- Detail apoptosis in the normal cell cycle and in cancerous cells
This chapter makes these cell concepts easy to understand and follow through short lessons and illustrative examples. Work through the lessons at your own pace, and take the quizzes to ensure you've fully comprehended what you've studied. Help from one of our experts is available should you need it.
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. How is DNA Packaged? - Chromosome Condensation & Karyograms
Learn how DNA packaging makes it possible to fit approximately seven feet of DNA inside a single cell. You'll see how chromosome condensation helps cells get ready for cell division.
5. Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
6. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
7. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
8. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
9. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
10. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
11. How Meiosis & Fertilization Promote Genetic Variation
Individuals are different because of their genetic variation. Even two siblings who come from the same parents have different genetic make-ups. This variation comes from both meiosis and fertilization, which are components of sexual reproduction.
12. What Is Cell Differentiation? - Process, Importance & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn how your cells become specialized. This specialization of cells allows them to perform different functions and create different parts of your body.
13. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Mutagens
Mutations, or changes in DNA sequences, are incredibly important in biology, from evolution and diversity to cancer and genetic diseases. But how do mutations happen? In this lesson, you'll learn about mutagens, which are chemicals that can cause mutations.
14. Apoptosis in the Cell Cycle & Cancer
Learn about natural cell death, called apoptosis, in normal cells and cancer cells, as well as treatments that are being developed to treat cancer by controlling apoptosis.
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Other chapters within the OSAT Biological Sciences (CEOE) (010): Study Guide & Practice course
- Scientific Inquiry Overview
- Scientific Inquiry Process
- Safety Procedures and Hazards in Scientific Research
- Basic Chemistry & Biochemistry
- Cell Biology
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- DNA, RNA & Gene Expression
- Types & Effects of Genetic Mutations
- Introduction to Genetic Engineering
- Classical & Molecular Genetics
- Mechanisms of Biological Evolution
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Characteristics & Organization of Organisms
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Plant Growth and Reproduction
- Animal Reproduction & Development
- Overview of Human Anatomy & Body Systems
- Biology: Diseases & Prevention
- Populations and Biological Communities
- Ecosystems and Biomes
- Biochemical Cycles
- Human Activity and the Biosphere