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- Define genome.
- Describe the structure of chromosomes.
- Explain the cell cycle.
- Discuss the process of chromosome condensation.
- Describe the physical features of a chromosome.
- Compare and contrast mitosis I and mitosis II.
- Differentiate between cytokinesis in animal cells and in plant cells.
- Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction.
- Describe the differences between meiosis I and meiosis II.
- Explain what happens when chromosomes do not divide properly.
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. How is DNA Packaged? - Chromosome Condensation & Karyograms
Learn how DNA packaging makes it possible to fit approximately seven feet of DNA inside a single cell. You'll see how chromosome condensation helps cells get ready for cell division.
5. Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
6. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
7. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
8. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
9. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
10. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
11. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
12. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
13. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
14. Prometaphase: Definition & Concept
Have you ever heard of prometaphase? Some texts avoid this term, but this lesson goes over the six key events that occur during this specific phase of mitosis.
15. What is MPF?
Maturation promoting factor (MPF) is a protein complex that lets your cells know when it's time to divide and make a new cell. This lesson will review the cell cycle and discuss how MPF functions as a cell cycle checkpoint.
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