About This Chapter
Cells are the foundation of our very being. They make up our skin, eyes, hair, arms, legs - every part of our bodies. Understanding how cells develop and reproduce is essential knowledge if you want to understand other natural science topics. In these lessons, professional and experienced instructors will teach you about:
- The cell cycle
- Mitosis, including the mitotic spindle and the phases of chromosome segregation
- Meiosis, including an overview of the process, reductional cell division and equational cell division
- Asexual reproduction versus sexual reproduction
- Autotrophs and heterotrophs
|The Cell Cycle||Study division of cells and the stages of cell division. Also take a look at the cell cycle during non-division.|
|Mitosis I: The Mitotic Spindle||Discover what the mitotic spindle is and find out more about other related terms, such as microtubule, centrosome and astral microtubule.|
|Mitosis II: Phases of Chromosome Segregation||Explore the five phases of mitosis.|
|Overview of Meiosis||Examine both phases of meiosis, including a discussion of diploids and haploids.|
|Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division||Analyze the different stages of meiosis.|
|Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction||Take a look at how reproduction occurs with and without a mate.|
|Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division||Study the second division that occurs in this stage.|
|Autotrophs and Heterotrophs||Discover how autotrophs and heterotrophs get energy and why that distinguishes them into these two categories.|
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
5. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
6. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
7. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
8. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
9. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
10. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
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Other chapters within the Science 101: Intro to Natural Sciences course
- Atomic Structure & Fundamentals of Matter
- Introduction to Thermodynamics
- Cell Biology Fundamentals
- Introduction to Molecular Biology
- Introduction to Biochemistry
- Molecular Genetics Overview
- Plant Anatomy, Physiology & Processes
- Animal Reproduction, Growth and Development
- Animal Anatomy, Physiology & Functions
- Human Anatomy & Physiology
- Environmental Science Fundamentals
- Introduction to Ecology
- Basics of Evolution
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Studying for Science 101