About This Chapter
Cellular Level of the Nervous System - Chapter Summary
In this chapter on the cellular level of the nervous system, brief lessons cover topics like Schwann cells, axon repair, and the relative refractory period. Additionally, you will learn about acetylcholine and the action potential of neurons. After completing the chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- List types and parts of neurons
- Discuss the control center for each neuron in your brain
- Explain the function of axons
- Use a microscope to observe neurons and synapses
- Discuss why the myelin sheath is an important part of the nervous system
- Recall the significance of the absolute refractory period
- Label an action-potential graph showing depolarization
- Explain how norepinephrine affects the body
A brief quiz is available to test your knowledge after each lesson, and the quizzes can be printed for use as offline worksheets. Lessons include illustrations to help you grasp the concepts presented. Another nice feature is the timeline links that allow you to skip around in the videos to the topics you want to review.
1. What is a Neuron? - Definition, Parts & Function
What are the parts of a neuron? You'll watch Neuron Garciaparra work up a sweat as he throws baseballs to demonstrate the structures and functions of the billions of neurons that reside in your body.
2. What Is a Cell Body? - Definition, Function & Types
Ever wonder what controls all the cells in your brain? In this lesson, you will learn about the control center for each neuron in your brain, the cell body.
3. Axons: Definition & Function
The nervous system is designed to control almost every system in the body. It does so through the use of neurons, which communicate with cells and tissue in different systems. This article addresses a part of the neuron, called the axon, which is important in this cellular communication.
4. Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More
There are many types of neurons in your body that help you see, smell, hear, and move. In this lesson, you'll learn more about afferent, efferent, sensory, and motor neurons.
5. The Myelin Sheath, Schwann Cells & Nodes of Ranvier
The myelin sheath is an essential part of our nervous system. Learn more about this neuron component, explore the nodes of Ranvier, and discover why Schwann cells are crucial for neuron survival.
6. The Myelin Sheath & Axon Repair
Have you ever wondered how your body repairs itself when you're hurt? What happens to your nerves in the damaged area? In this lesson, we'll be learning about the importance of myelin in axon repair in nerve cells. We'll also look at the importance of myelin for nerve signaling in general.
7. Absolute Refractory Period: Definition & Significance
This lesson is on the absolute refractory period, a time when a neuron cannot fire another impulse. This lesson will explain the mechanism behind the absolute refractory period and the function.
8. Relative Refractory Period: Definition & Significance
This lesson is about the relative refractory period - the amount of time that a neuron needs additional stimulus to be able to send an action potential. In this lesson, you will learn how neurons communicate, what the relative refractory period is, and why it is important for our bodies.
9. How to Label an Action-Potential Graph Showing Depolarization
In this lesson, you'll be reviewing the parts of an action potential: depolarization, resting potential, threshold, and the refractory period. We'll look in detail about how to label these parts on an action potential graph as well.
10. Action Potential: Definition & Steps
How do brain cells communicate with each other? View this lesson to find out about action potentials of neurons, how that helps them to communicate with each other, and what happens when neurons become more or less polarized.
11. Establishing Resting Potential of a Neuron
What happens to a neuron when it's not firing? In this lesson, we'll examine the resting potential of a neuron, including what it is, how it works, and how channels, gates, and pumps help establish the resting potential after a neuron fires.
12. Acetylcholine: Definition, Function & Deficiency Symptoms
In this lesson, you will learn about acetylcholine, a chemical messenger that causes our skeletal muscles to contract and regulates our endocrine system. You'll find out how acetylcholine works and how a deficiency in this chemical can lead to serious medical conditions.
13. What Is Norepinephrine? - Effects, Function & Definition
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is secreted in response to stress. Learn about what norepinephrine is and how it affects the body. Additionally, discover what drug contains norepinephrine and if it is safe to use.
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Other chapters within the Alberta Education Diploma - Biology 30: Exam Prep & Study Guide course
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