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Ch 21: CEOE Middle Level Science: Mechanisms of Biological Evolution

About This Chapter

Learn about biological evolution in this chapter of the CEOE Middle Level Science exam study guide. Video lesson and self-assessment quizzes teach you all you need to know about middle level science for teacher licensure in Oklahoma.

CEOE Middle Level Science: Mechanisms of Biological Evolution - Chapter Summary

Lessons in this chapter explore mechanisms of biological evolution, including evidence for evolution, rates of evolution, and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Natural selection, speciation, and genetic variability are also covered. By the end of this chapter, you should be familiar with:

  • Paleontological, biogeographical, and embryological evidence for evolution
  • Punctuated equilibrium and molecular clock hypothesis
  • Natural selection and adaptation
  • Allopatric and sympatric speciation
  • Genetic variability and random mutation
  • Rapid adaptation
  • Artificial selection in evolution

Short, engaging video lessons thoroughly explain each subject, and knowledgeable instructors are available to answer any questions you may have. Use the jump feature under the Timeline tab to skip directly to main subjects within the video lessons. Self-assessment quizzes ensure your full understanding and retention of the material.

Mechanisms of Biological Evolution - Chapter Objectives

The CEOE Middle Level Science exam measures a prospective middle school science teacher's knowledge of subject matter in accordance with Oklahoma educator licensure regulations. The exam measures foundations of scientific inquiry, life science, physical science, and earth and space science. The material covered in this Mechanisms of Biological Evolution chapter is tested in the life science portion of the exam, which comprises about 26% of the entire test. The exam includes approximately 80 multiple-choice questions and one open-response question.

14 Lessons in Chapter 21: CEOE Middle Level Science: Mechanisms of Biological Evolution
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin

1. Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin

We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.

Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology

2. Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology

There is much support for the theory of evolution. This evidence comes from a variety of scientific fields and provides information that helps us trace changes in species over time. In this lesson, we'll look at this evidence and explore how it supports the theory of evolution.

Rates of Evolution: Punctuated Equilibrium & Molecular Clock Hypothesis

3. Rates of Evolution: Punctuated Equilibrium & Molecular Clock Hypothesis

In general, evolution is a very long process. But rates of evolution can be different for different organisms. In this video lesson, you will identify how scientists study rates of evolution and fill in some of the missing 'steps' in the fossil record.

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium I: Overview

4. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium I: Overview

In this lesson, we'll examine population genetics in greater detail. We'll also explore notions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for large, stable populations. Is the genetic makeup of our flying hamster population changing? The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can serve as a reference point as we try to answer population genetics questions.

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium II: The Equation

5. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium II: The Equation

The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation is represented by a polynomial, so we'll have to do some calculations. Don't be intimidated; a few coin tosses can help us make sense of allelic frequencies in a given gene pool.

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium III: Evolutionary Agents

6. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium III: Evolutionary Agents

In this lesson, you'll learn how the Hardy-Weinberg equation relates to different evolutionary agents and population changes. Discover how the equation may be used to discover populations that are not in equilibrium.

Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples

7. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples

How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.

Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples

8. Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples

We'll take a look at the types of natural selection that can occur. From flying hamsters to moths, you'll start to grasp the different paths organisms can take as they respond to their changing environments over time.

Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation

9. Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation

Discover the definition of a species and learn more about how species split. Find out common terms related to the splitting of species and study what role polyploidy plays in the development of a species.

Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples

10. Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples

We may take for granted why animals choose to mate with other animals of similar appearance, but it's not that simple. There are actually biological barriers to reproduction that can prevent even seemingly closely related species from reproducing. This lesson looks at one such category of hindrances, prezygotic barriers, which make fertilization impossible.

Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples

11. Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples

Do flying hamsters represent a separate species from your run-of-the-mill hamsters? We'll get to the bottom of this by performing crosses between the two hamster types. You'll explore postzygotic reproductive barriers and their possibly tragic consequences.

Genetic Variability and Random Mutation

12. Genetic Variability and Random Mutation

Evolution is driven by variation among populations. The amount of variability determines how well a population can adapt to environmental changes, while random mutations can provide new variations that help a population adapt to unexpected changes.

An Example of Rapid Adaptation: The Peppered Moths

13. An Example of Rapid Adaptation: The Peppered Moths

Normally, adaptations occur over thousands or millions of years. However, drastic changes in the environment can shorten the time period in which a change comes about. In such cases, we can learn a lot about the evolutionary process and how natural selection drives it forward.

Artificial Selection in Evolution

14. Artificial Selection in Evolution

Humans have been selectively breeding for desirable traits in plants and animals for a long time. This artificial selection allows for a lot of control in the breeding process but can also lead to unintended mutations within a population of organisms.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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