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- Understand how to apply the octet rule.
- Predict the charge and formation of ions.
- List the properties of ionic compounds.
- Name any type of ionic compound.
- Write formulas for ionic compounds.
- List the properties of covalent compounds.
- Draw Lewis structures.
- Predict the bond polarity and ionic character of covalent bonds.
- Use VSPER theory to predict molecule shapes.
- Describe the different types of strong intermolecular forces.
- Discuss weak intermolecular forces.
- Predict molecular shape using orbital hybridization and valence bond theory.
- Determine bond order using molecular orbital theory.
- Explain why metals are good electrical conductors.
- Identify inorganic and organic macromolecules.
- Explore the structures of different types of organic molecules.
1. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
2. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
3. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
4. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
5. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds
In this lesson, you will learn how to write the chemical formulas for both binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds when you are given only the name of the compound. You will see that it is actually quite simple when you learn the steps described in this lesson.
6. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
7. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
8. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
9. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
10. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
11. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
12. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
13. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
14. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
15. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
16. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
17. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
18. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
19. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
20. Aldehyde: Definition, Reactions, Formula & Structure
There are numerous organic functional groups. In this lesson, we will learn about the volatile, and often sweet-smelling, aldehyde. Read on to learn more about aldehyde, including its formula and structure, as well as some common reactions that it can undergo.
21. Ammonium: Definition, Structure & Formula
In this lesson, we will define ammonium and take a closer look at its bonding structure, geometrical shape, and chemical formula. We also discuss the acid-base reaction that forms ammonium.
22. H2S: Definition & Lewis Structure
You can not see it nor taste it, but you can certainly smell it a mile away; what a great way to describe the chemical hydrogen sulfide. This lesson is devoted to learning about hydrogen sulfide and detailing its Lewis structure.
23. Antibonding Molecular Orbital: Definition & Overview
In this lesson, we will be learning about what an anti-bonding orbital is in terms of molecular orbital theory and getting a brief overview of its role in molecular systems.
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Other chapters within the College Chemistry: Tutoring Solution course
- Experimental Chemistry and Introduction to Matter: Tutoring Solution
- Atoms: Tutoring Solution
- The Periodic Table: Tutoring Solution
- Nuclear Chemistry & Radioactive Decay: Tutoring Solution
- Liquids and Solids: Tutoring Solution
- Gases: Tutoring Solution
- Solutions: Tutoring Solution
- Stoichiometry: Tutoring Solution
- Chemical Reactions: Tutoring Solution
- Equilibrium in Chemistry: Tutoring Solution
- Kinetics: Tutoring Solution
- Thermodynamics: Tutoring Solution