About This Chapter
Chemical Bonds & Molecular Forces - Chapter Summary
This chapter provides a comprehensive examination of the two main types of chemical bonds: ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Different types of intermolecular forces are discussed, such as London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, ion-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding. The lessons also cover molecule polarity and identification of macromolecules. Delve into an exploration of all these bonds, forces, and properties through this study chapter. By the end of the chapter, you should be able to complete these objectives:
- Present the electron-sea model as a way to understand metallic bonds
- Draw molecular orbital diagrams
- Describe how valence bond theory informs us about a molecule's shape
- Distinguish between weak intermolecular forces and strong intermolecular forces
- Differentiation between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds
- Explain the formation of ions and ionic compounds and predict their charges
- Write ionic formulas for binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds
- Name common covalent compounds and ionic compounds
The expert instructors who wrote this chapter have plenty of experience teaching science and have incorporated their tried-and-tested ways of explaining chemistry into this study guide. Since most topics of discussion in this chemistry chapter are microscopic, we illustrate them with diagrams and animations to convey their information. Our video lessons transform static content into animated clips that help you envision exactly how various bonds are formed! You can refer to the text script or the video as many times as, and whenever, you'd like.
1. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
2. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
3. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
4. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
5. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
6. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
7. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
8. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
9. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
10. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds
In this lesson, you will learn how to write the chemical formulas for both binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds when you are given only the name of the compound. You will see that it is actually quite simple when you learn the steps described in this lesson.
11. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
12. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
13. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
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Other chapters within the NES Chemistry (306): Practice & Study Guide course
- Nature and History of Science
- Principles and Procedures of Scientific Inquiry
- Equipment, Safety Procedures & Hazards in the Chemistry Lab
- Impact of STEM on Society
- Physical & Chemical Properties of Matter
- Atomic Structure in Chemistry
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Properties of Liquids & Solids
- Gas Laws
- Nuclear Processes
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Thermochemistry & the Laws of Thermodynamics
- Nomenclature & Structure of Compounds
- Organic Molecules for Chemistry
- Reaction Rates in Chemistry
- Equilibrium in Chemistry
- Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- Overview of Stoichiometry
- Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
- NES Chemistry Flashcards