About This Chapter
Chemical & Dynamic Equilibrium - Chapter Summary
The brief, but engaging, videos in these lessons will help enhance and clarify the principles of chemical equilibrium your middle school student learned in their chemistry class. The lessons present methods of analyzing solutions through manipulating their equilibria. Along the way, instructors identify key terms and common constants used in chemistry, such as solubility, equilibrium, and acid/base constants. Test your student's retention of the video instruction with quizzes at the end of every lesson, and also with the end-of-chapter exam. These tools will help you identify your student's strengths and weaknesses, perhaps identifying lessons which need repeating.
Chapter Lessons and Objectives
|Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic||Introduces the student to the root concepts of chemical equilibrium, particularly dynamic equilibrium.|
|LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium||Student learns how equilibrium seeks to re-balance after its reactant/product balance is disturbed.|
|Equilibrium Constant (K) and Reaction Quotient (Q)||This lesson describes how to measure the direction of change between reactant and product through comparing the equilibrium constant to the reaction quotient.|
|Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations||Instructors show how the solubility of a given solid in aqueous solution can be represented by the solubility constant, which describes chemical equilibrium between the two agents.|
|The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation||Students learn how to use LeChatelier's Principle to identify metals in a given solution through singling them out (titrating) by introducing ions which force their matching metal to solidify (precipitate).|
|Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution||With this lesson, students learn to determine the equilibrium constant of an acid (Ka) or base (Kb) in a solution.|
|Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution||In this lesson, students are taught about buffer solutions and how to use the equilibrium constant and concentration of acid or base used to create the buffer solution to determine the solution's pH.|
|Titration of a Strong Acid or a Strong Base||Instructors teach students to calculate the concentration of a strong acid or base in a solution by slowly adding a strong solution of opposite acidity and monitoring the point at which equilibrium is reached (equivalence point).|
|Titrations with Weak Acids or Weak Bases||Students are taught to calculate the concentration of a weak acid or base solution by slowly adding a strong, opposite solution through multiple equivalence points until the final point, equal to the number of available ions of the unknown acid or base, is reached.|
1. Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic
Learn the definition of chemical equilibrium and how it is dynamic. Discover what the equilibrium constant is and how it shows whether the reaction favors the reactants or products. Learn how chemists designate equilibrium in an equation and how they show the difference in reaction rate.
2. LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium
Learn how Le Chatelier's Principle describes the disruption and re-establishment of equilibrium. Learn to explain the factors that disrupt equilibrium, such as concentration, temperature, and pressure. Learn how each of these factors affects a system in equilibrium.
3. Equilibrium Constant (K) and Reaction Quotient (Q)
In this lesson, we will first define and explain the notion of a chemical equilibrium. Then, you'll learn about the equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Finally, we'll round off the lesson with a couple of examples to solidify what you've learned!
4. Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations
Learn the definition of solubility and solubility constant (Ksp) in this lesson. Interpret solubility constants and make calculations involving the dissociation of a slightly soluble compound given molar solubility.
5. The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation
Learn what the common ion effect is, how to make equilibrium calculations involving it, and how to find the concentrations of ions when adding reactions in equilibrium to solutions that already contain ions.
6. Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution
In this lesson, you will review acid and base strength and acid and base dissociation. You will then learn what acid and base dissociation constants (Ka and Kb) are, what they mean, and how to perform calculations involving them.
7. Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution
Learn what a buffer is, how it works, and why we benefit from having our blood buffered. Learn how to calculate the pH of a buffered solution before an acid or base is added and how the pH changes after an acid or base is added.
8. Titration of a Strong Acid or a Strong Base
Discover what titration is and how to calculate the concentration of an acid or base that has been titrated to equivalence. Learn the meaning of titrant, standard solution and equivalence point. Study titration curves and learn how to determine pH during any point of a titration between a strong acid and strong base.
9. Titrations with Weak Acids or Weak Bases
Learn about titrations with weak acids or weak bases in this lesson. Study their titration curves and learn about some of their important characteristics. Learn how to calculate pH during titrations involving weak acids and strong bases.
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