About This Chapter
Chemical Equilibrium & Kinetics- Chapter Summary
In this chapter's lessons, you will focus your studies on solubility constants, common ion effect, relation between reaction rate and equilibrium constant, and determining reaction order. Our lessons cover the definition of acids and bases, how to use a solubility constant in calculations, and calculations for ionic equilibrium. Objectives this chapter will focus on can help you:
- Understand the chemical equilibrium
- Review the factors that disrupt equilibrium
- Recall how ionic equilibrium works
- Discover Ostwald's dilution law
- Learn about different examples of hydrolysis reactions
- Distinguish the differences between the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis theory
- Determine the benefits of buffers
- Calculate solubility equilibrium
The chapter's lessons are instructed by knowledgeable educators who are experts on the information that you will be studying. If you need to ask a question about the material in any of the lessons, they are happy to answer. Use the short multiple-choice lesson quizzes to assess your understanding. They have links back to the lessons that make it simple to find specific topics for review.
1. Equilibrium Constant (K) and Reaction Quotient (Q)
In this lesson, we will first define and explain the notion of a chemical equilibrium. Then, you'll learn about the equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Finally, we'll round off the lesson with a couple of examples to solidify what you've learned!
2. LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium
Learn how Le Chatelier's Principle describes the disruption and re-establishment of equilibrium. Learn to explain the factors that disrupt equilibrium, such as concentration, temperature, and pressure. Learn how each of these factors affects a system in equilibrium.
3. Ionic Equilibrium: Definition & Calculations
This lesson talks about ionic equilibrium and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts. It also shows how to calculate pH of a solution and solubility product/solubility of sparingly soluble salts.
4. Ostwald's Dilution Law of Acids and Bases
This lesson is about the Ostwald Dilution Law, which is an application of the expression for an electrolyte's equilibrium constant. This law only works for weak electrolytes, including weak acids and weak bases.
5. Hydrolysis: Definition, Reaction, Equation & Example
Have you ever wondered why the hydrolysis reaction is used to break table sugar, or sucrose, into glucose and fructose sugars? Continue reading to learn about the hydrolysis reaction, including examples of different types of hydrolysis reactions.
6. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
7. Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution
Learn what a buffer is, how it works, and why we benefit from having our blood buffered. Learn how to calculate the pH of a buffered solution before an acid or base is added and how the pH changes after an acid or base is added.
8. Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations
Learn the definition of solubility and solubility constant (Ksp) in this lesson. Interpret solubility constants and make calculations involving the dissociation of a slightly soluble compound given molar solubility.
9. The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation
Learn what the common ion effect is, how to make equilibrium calculations involving it, and how to find the concentrations of ions when adding reactions in equilibrium to solutions that already contain ions.
10. Chemical Kinetics, Reaction Rate Constant & Equilibrium Constant
Are formulas, rate constants, and chemical reactions getting you down? Don't worry, this lesson will explain how reaction rate and equilibrium constants are related to chemical reactions.
11. Rate Constant and Rate Laws
Learn what the rate law is and how the rate constant relates to it. Learn what reaction order is and how to determine reaction order when given experimental data containing concentration and reaction rate.
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