About This Chapter
Chemical & Ionic Equilibrium - Chapter Summary
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of chemical and ionic equilibrium. Study this subject with the help of expert instructors who closely examine LeChatelier's principle, acid-base and solubility equilibrium, the pH scale, the law of mass action and more. Once you've completed this chapter, you will be ready to:
- Define chemical equilibrium and discuss how it is dynamic
- Discuss equilibrium constant (K) and reaction quotient (Q)
- Detail the relationship between the equilibrium constant and free energy
- Describe the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definition of acids and bases
- Exhibit knowledge of the dissociation constant and autoionization of water
- Explain how to tell if a salt solution is neutral, basic or acidic
- Share the definition of the common ion effect and selective precipitation
- Calculate the pH of a buffered solution
Feel free to customize the lessons in this chapter to suit your learning and study needs. Choose any number of lessons to review, and navigate them in any order. Mini lesson quizzes and a practice exam can check your understanding of chemical and ionic equilibrium. If you have questions about the lessons you review, be sure to send them to our experts via the Dashboard.
1. Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic
Learn the definition of chemical equilibrium and how it is dynamic. Discover what the equilibrium constant is and how it shows whether the reaction favors the reactants or products. Learn how chemists designate equilibrium in an equation and how they show the difference in reaction rate.
2. Law of Mass Action: Definition, Application & Equation
This lesson will discuss law of mass action. It will derive the equations between equilibrium constants at constant partial pressure (Kp), concentrations (Kc) and discuss some real-life applications of chemical equilibrium.
3. Equilibrium Constant (K) and Reaction Quotient (Q)
In this lesson, we will first define and explain the notion of a chemical equilibrium. Then, you'll learn about the equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Finally, we'll round off the lesson with a couple of examples to solidify what you've learned!
4. LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium
Learn how Le Chatelier's Principle describes the disruption and re-establishment of equilibrium. Learn to explain the factors that disrupt equilibrium, such as concentration, temperature, and pressure. Learn how each of these factors affects a system in equilibrium.
5. The Relationship Between Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
In this lesson, we learn the important connection between free energy and the equilibrium constant. We will begin by considering systems under non-standard conditions to derive the relationship. We will see how to relate the free energy change to the extent of a chemical reaction.
6. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
7. Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution
In this lesson, you will review acid and base strength and acid and base dissociation. You will then learn what acid and base dissociation constants (Ka and Kb) are, what they mean, and how to perform calculations involving them.
8. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
9. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
10. Acidic & Basic Salt Solutions: Explanation & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn how to tell if a salt solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. You will find out how to recognize the effect of individual ions in solution and how they can change the pH. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
11. Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations
Learn the definition of solubility and solubility constant (Ksp) in this lesson. Interpret solubility constants and make calculations involving the dissociation of a slightly soluble compound given molar solubility.
12. The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation
Learn what the common ion effect is, how to make equilibrium calculations involving it, and how to find the concentrations of ions when adding reactions in equilibrium to solutions that already contain ions.
13. Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution
Learn what a buffer is, how it works, and why we benefit from having our blood buffered. Learn how to calculate the pH of a buffered solution before an acid or base is added and how the pH changes after an acid or base is added.
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