About This Chapter
Chemical Nature of the Gene - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you'll study various topics related to genes. You'll get to look at the central dogma and study DNA and RNA. The genetic code is also covered. Lessons will cover things like codon recognition, protein synthesis, and translation. Our videos will go over genetic mutations as well, so you can understand what happens when something goes wrong. Some of the other things you can expect to study include:
- Protein synthesis in the cell
- How RNA is translated into amino acids
- Translation of mRNA
- How genetic mutations affect DNA
- The effects of mutations
- Environmental effects of mutations
|Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma||Study the basics of transcription and translation.|
|Transcription of messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA||Discover the details of transcription from DNA to RNA.|
|RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons||Explore RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell.|
|What is the Genetic Code that Translates RNA into Amino Acids?||Examine how RNA is translated into a series of amino acids.|
|Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition||Find out that the genetic code is universal and degenerate.|
|Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code||Learn about the process of codon recognition.|
|The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation||Study how peptide bonds link amino acids to form polypeptides.|
|Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps||Examine how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains.|
|How Point Mutations, Insertions, and Deletions Affect DNA||Find out what genetic mutations are and how they affect DNA.|
|Effects of Mutations of Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations||Discover how missense, nonsense, and silent mutations arise from base substitutions.|
|The Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples||Explore how frameshift mutations arise from insertions and deletions.|
|Mutagens: How the Environment Affects Mutation Rates||Study how mutations are caused by mutagens, how DNA polymerase corrects mistakes, and how exposure to mutagens in the environment can be reduced.|
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
4. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
5. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
6. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
9. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
What are genetic mutations? How do they affect our DNA? This lesson covers the basics of point mutations and provides simple examples of different mutation types.
10. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
11. Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples
What is a frameshift in genetic translation? How can a frameshift mutation change a protein? In this lesson, learn about the codon reading frame and how frameshift mutations cause serious problems for polypeptide formation.
12. Mutagens: How the Environment Affects Mutation Rates
What causes mutations to occur in living things? How do we avoid mutations? Are mutations always bad? Discover answers to these questions and more in this lesson on mutagens.
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