About This Chapter
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Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college-level general chemistry material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn college-level general chemistry. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding decomposition or working with synthesis reactions
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
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- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about chemical reactions
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Chemical Reactions chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know; review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Chemical Reactions chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any chemical reactions question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a Chemical Reactions unit of a standard college-level general chemistry course. Topics covered include:
- Neutralization and acid-based reactions
- Dissociation constant and autoionization of water
- Calculating the pH or pOH of a solution
- Assigning oxidation numbers to elements in a chemical formula
- Cathode and anode half-cell reactions
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
4. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
5. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
6. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
7. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
8. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
9. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
10. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
11. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
12. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
13. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
14. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
15. What is a Binary Acid?
If you work in the photography industry or have any rubber items in your home, you've most likely come in contact with hydrochloric acid, a common type of binary acid. In this lesson, you'll explore binary acids, including their characteristics and how they differ from binary compounds.
16. What is a Conjugate Acid? - Definition & Examples
Explore this lesson to learn about conjugate acids, how they are different from other acids, and where to find them in a given acid-base equation. Then, apply what you have learned, in this lesson, to examples involving conjugate acids.
17. Acyl Chloride: Reactions & Synthesis
This lesson describes the formation and use of acyl chlorides in organic synthesis. You will see how this functional group is formed, and the ways it can be reacted to form different carboxylic acid derivatives.
18. Balanced Chemical Equation: Definition & Examples
A chemical equation shows the chemical formulas of substances that are reacting and the substances that are produced. The number of atoms of the reactants and products need to be balanced. In this lesson, we will discuss balancing chemical equations.
19. Activated Complex: Definition & Theory
The activated complex is the step in a reaction when the compound is not stable. It is due to the activated complex that exothermic reactions do not occur spontaneously.
20. Chemical Change: Signs & Evidence
From fireworks to a rusty penny, a lot of what we see involves a chemical change. Explore this lesson to learn about five different signs or evidence of chemical changes.
21. Chemical vs. Physical Change
From watching ice melt into water to observing a plant change its colors, changes in matter are important to science and nature. Learn about physical and chemical changes and why they are uniquely different from each other.
22. Summary of Alkyne Reactions
In this lesson, you will learn the types of alkynes and related functional groups. You will then learn the major reactions that alkynes undergo: alkylation, reduction, addition, and oxidation.
23. Substitution Reaction Examples in Organic Chemistry
In this lesson we will learn about substitution reactions. We'll explore the difference between electrophilic substitution reactions and nucleophilic substitution reactions, and we'll look at examples of both types.
24. Elimination Reactions In Organic Chemistry
In this lesson, we'll explore organic chemistry elimination reactions. Learn how elimination reactions create alkenes from alkanes, and why their creation is difficult unless alcohols and alkyl halides are there to help.
25. The Grignard Reaction Mechanism
Have you ever wondered how carbon-carbon bonds are created in organic compounds? Continue reading to explore how these bonds are formed using a Grignard reaction. Identify the steps involved by learning about mechanism for this reaction.
26. Grignard Reagent: Formation, Synthesis & Preparation
What happens when you mix a little bit of magnesium with a sprinkle of alkyl and dash of halide? You get a pretty famous reagent named a Grignard reagent. Learn all about Grignard reagents and how to make them.
27. History of the Grignard Reaction
The Grignard reaction helped shaped the world of organic chemistry. Named after Victor Grignard, he discovered how carbon-carbon bonds can be made from metals. Learn about the history of this reaction and the scientist who discovered it.
28. Grignard Reaction with Alcohol, Ketone & Aldehyde
In this lesson, we'll learn about the Grignard reaction. We'll see how the reaction occurs with ketones and aldehydes, as well as how water and alcohols prevent this reaction from occurring.
29. Ketone Reactions
In this lesson we will learn about ketones and the reactions they undergo, including addition reactions, reduction reactions, and substitution reactions. We will also learn the relationship between ketones and diabetes.
30. Carboxylic Acids Reactions
Carboxylic acids can be found in many places, including your home. In this lesson we will look at some of the reactions that carboxylic acids can undergo and how they occur.
31. Amides Reactions
In this lesson we will get a brief overview of amides and survey some of the more important reactions involving this very important organic functional group.
32. Types of Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry
In this lesson, we'll learn about the general reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. We'll also learn how to identify when the reactions will be used and explore the mechanisms for each.
33. The Total of All Chemical Reactions in an Organism
In this lesson, we will learn about metabolism in plants and animals. We will learn what types of reactions each participate in and the net energy each creates.
34. Chemical Synthesis: Definition & Examples
Many materials are used when a building is constructed; a similar principle applies in science when a scientist constructs a chemical. Continue reading to learn about the process called chemical synthesis.
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Other chapters within the College Chemistry: Help and Review course
- Experimental Chemistry and Introduction to Matter: Help and Review
- Atoms: Help and Review
- The Periodic Table: Help and Review
- Nuclear Chemistry: Help and Review
- Chemical Bonding: Help and Review
- Liquids and Solids: Help and Review
- Gases: Help and Review
- Solutions: Help and Review
- Stoichiometry: Help and Review
- Equilibrium: Help and Review
- Kinetics: Help and Review
- Thermodynamics: Help and Review
- Chirality in Organic Chemistry: Help & Review
- Stereochemistry: Help & Review