About This Chapter
Chemical Reactions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Chemistry is largely about reactions, but understanding and classifying these reactions can be tricky. Information from this chapter can help you better comprehend the various kinds of chemical reactions. The lessons elaborate on the methods used for identifying, predicting, and calculating how chemicals and chemical compounds may interact. From your user dashboard, you can always send for help if you need clarification on any of these topics. At the end of this chapter, you should feel more knowledgeable about the following:
- Different types of chemical reactions
- Leading theoretical definitions of acids and bases
- Balancing and calculating combustion reactions
- Coordination chemistry
- The pH scale
|Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions||Point out the products of decomposition reactions and simple synthesis, then discover how to write up these products and predict their occurrences.|
|The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases||Study how the Arrhenius theory identifies acids and bases, and learn about typical uses for different acids.|
|The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases||Describe and apply these different theories for defining acids and bases.|
|Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions||Distinguish amphoteric compounds, examine the neutralization process, and mark out the conjugate acids and bases associated with different acid/base reaction experiments.|
|Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water||Elaborate on what happens to water during autoionization, and determine how hydronium and hydroxide concentrations vary during this process.|
|The pH Scale: Calculating the pH or pOH of a Solution||Practice making pH and pOH calculations with different measurements of acids and bases, then go over changes in the pH scale.|
|Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds||Review how bonding takes place within coordination compounds.|
|Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations||Make logical guesses about precipitate formations and draft out ionic equations.|
|Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula||Memorize the oxidation number rules and provide those numbers for all individual elements within chemical formulas.|
|Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents||Apply the half-reaction method to create balance in redox equations, then distinguish both the reducing and oxidizing agents.|
|The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions||Estimate the products that will occur during single displacement reactions by incorporating the activity series method.|
|Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry||Map out the components of electrochemical cells and explain how each part works.|
|Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions||Record electrode half reactions for anodes and cathodes, determine cell voltage potential based on a table of established figures, and discuss techniques for applying redox concepts to stop corrosion.|
|Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions||Mark out combustion reactions for different fuel sources, balance these reactions, then establish the exothermic properties of combustion reactions given theories about bond energies.|
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
4. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
5. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
6. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
7. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
8. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
9. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
10. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
11. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
12. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
13. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
14. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
15. Single-Displacement Reaction: Definition & Examples
There are so many chemical reactions that occur around us that we classify them into different types. In this lesson, we will discuss single-displacement reactions, one of the main types of chemical reactions.
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