About This Chapter
Child Development in Psychology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Understanding how children gain a sense of self, personality, and cognition has long been of interest to psychologists. In this chapter, you'll learn about the different theories of child development, from Piaget's stages of cognitive development to Kohlberg's stages of moral development. You'll explore classic experiments involving monkeys and visual cliffs. Parents can have a great impact on cognitive development, and we'll discuss the ways in which this happens. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- How children develop, from the fetus through adolescence
- What children can understand at various ages
- Important theories about personality and cognitive development in children
- The role biology plays in cognitive development
- How children learn about the world around them
|Intro to Developmental Psychology||Define developmental psychology and get an overview of the field.|
|Research Methods Used in Developmental Psychology||Explore the research methods used in the field, like the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods.|
|Prenatal Development||Understand how a fetus develops and what psychological developments happen inside the womb.|
|Infant Development||Learn about infant instinct and attachment through the visual cliff experiment.|
|Harlow's Monkeys||Explore the famous experiment and see what monkeys showed about the psychological need for love.|
|Assimilation and Accommodation||Understand Piaget's idea of adaptation, or how children learn about and categorize the world.|
|Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development||Learn the four stages of cognitive development in children as defined by Jean Piaget.|
|Theory of Mind and the False Belief Task||Explore the theory of mind and how we form the ability to understand that other people have different beliefs.|
|Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development||Learn about the importance of social interactions in cognitive development and the basics of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory.|
|Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development||Understand the stages of development that Lawrence Kohlberg came up with to define how people make choices about right and wrong.|
|Parenting Styles||Learn about different ways parents can act with their children, focusing on the balance between responsiveness and demandingness.|
|Erikson's Stages of Identity Formation||Explore Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development and the pairs of conflicting impulses that characterize each.|
|Gender Differences: The Nature Versus Nurture Debate||Understand gender differences and the roles genetics and environment play in the formation of gender schemas.|
1. Developmental Psychology: Definition, Theorists & Types of Growth
Why do we study psychological development? People change over their lifetimes, and developmental psychology helps us explore what changes and what stays the same. Learn about some of the big names in this field whose work and theories you'll explore in other lessons
2. Scientific Method Applications to Human Growth and Development Research
Human growth and development researchers utilize the scientific method as they attempt to explain how a person changes throughout their life. The following lesson will explore this process.
3. Data Collection Methods for Human Growth and Development Research
This lesson will help you understand and differentiate between the methods of data collection that can be used in human growth and development research.
4. Cross-sectional, Longitudinal & Sequential Designs: Advantages & Disadvantages
This lesson examines the three main ways of conducting research on adults and older individuals. Specifically, we will examine the three types, some of their advantages, and some of their disadvantages.
5. Prenatal Development & Psychology: Stages & Abnormal Development
How is prenatal development related to psychology? How are minds forming in the womb still linked to the outside environment? This lesson explores the stages of prenatal development and a mother's ability to affect her unborn child.
6. Studying Infant Development in Psychology: Experiments, Instincts & Abilities
Watch babies brave heights at the insistence of their smiling mothers! You'll learn how instinct and attachment can help infants explore their environments through the visual cliff experiments.
7. Harlow's Monkeys: Experiment, Comfort & Socialization
What happens when you make a baby monkey choose between food and comfort? The Harlows answered this question in a series of primate experiments. Love is important, so how will these lonely monkeys function without it?
8. Assimilation & Accommodation in Psychology: Definition & Examples
How do assimilation and accommodation help a child adapt to his environment? You'll explore how established and changing patterns of information drive a child's intellectual growth as he learns about cats and dogs.
9. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
How does a child's thinking change as she gets older? When does she learn about object permanence, conservation and abstract reasoning? You'll see that thought processes we take for granted as adults are actually important milestones in a child's cognitive development.
10. The Theory of Mind and the False Belief Task
As people age, the way we understand others and the world around us changes. In this lesson, we'll examine one of the areas in which children's thinking changes, theory of mind, and how psychologists measure it with the false belief task.
11. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
The role of culture and social interactions are imperative to cognitive development, according to psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. This lesson will discuss how social interactions play a role in cognitive development of children, provide an overview of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory and describe the stages of speech and language development.
12. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
How do people learn to make morally sound decisions? To illustrate Kohlberg's levels of moral development, we'll follow Lauren as she makes difficult decisions.
13. Parenting Styles: Authoritarian, Permissive & Neglectful
How do parenting styles differ from one another, and which are most effective? You'll follow expectant parents, Mary and Larry, as they walk their neighborhood and try to learn from other parents.
14. Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development: Theory & Examples
How do we form identities as we age and grow? To answer this question, Erik Erikson came up with eight stages of identity formation that revolve around conflict and resolution. Who are you, and who will you become after completing this lesson?
15. Gender Differences: The Nature Versus Nurture Debate
Are boys better in math and science courses than girls? Are girls better at activities like dance? Gender stereotypes are abundant in society. Are these stereotypes based on real differences or perpetuated opinions? This lesson focuses on gender differences and the influence of nature versus nurture.
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Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
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