About This Chapter
Child Development Psychology - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, our instructors explain the important theories and theorists in child development psychology and how each is important in the life of the growing child and adolescent. You will be introduced to the theorists who established this field as well as to the newer theorists whose contributions have been influential.
You'll study childhood and adolescent developmental milestones and the nature vs. nurture debate. As you progress through this chapter, you'll examine language development in children, the development of moral and prosocial behavior, and tools to advance cognitive development. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain how self-fulfilling prophecy theory impacts education
- Compare Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development
- Understand social constructivism and the mediated learning experience
- Identify Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
- Contrast Gilligan and Kohlberg's theories and stages of moral development
Our lessons are delivered via brief, fun video lessons that engage and absorb you. These lessons are taught by experts in their various fields. You'll also find self-assessment quizzes and video transcripts to enhance your learning. We provide a jump feature in the video timelines that allow you to watch a portion of a video without having to scroll through the whole thing.
1. Child and Adolescent Development: Developmental Milestones & Nature vs. Nurture
How does a child develop cognitively? Which influences development more - genetics or the environment? How important are early experiences in the growth and cognitive development of a child? These are some of the major questions that guide the work of researchers in the field of educational psychology. This lesson will begin to address these questions by describing the basic principles that characterize child and adolescent development.
2. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on how learners interact with their environment to develop complex reasoning and knowledge. This lesson will focus on the six basic assumptions of that theory, including the key terms: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
3. Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development that described and explained the changes in logical thinking of children and adolescents. Within that theory, he identified four stages of cognitive development through which all learners must proceed. This lesson will introduce you to and differentiate between those stages.
4. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
The role of culture and social interactions are imperative to cognitive development, according to psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. This lesson will discuss how social interactions play a role in cognitive development of children, provide an overview of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory and describe the stages of speech and language development.
5. Social Constructivism and the Mediated Learning Experience
A well-accepted fact among educational psychologists is the idea that knowledge is not absorbed but rather constructed through a person's experiences with his or her environment. This knowledge may be constructed individually or collaboratively. This lesson will briefly explain the processes behind knowledge construction and provide information on how socially constructed knowledge can advance the cognitive development of learners.
6. Tools to Advance Cognitive Development
The word 'tool' has a connotation of something that aids us. Normally, we think of tools being something manipulated with our hands to help us build. In this lesson, we will learn about tools designed to promote cognitive development.
7. Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development: Theory & Examples
How do we form identities as we age and grow? To answer this question, Erik Erikson came up with eight stages of identity formation that revolve around conflict and resolution. Who are you, and who will you become after completing this lesson?
8. Linguistics: Language Development in Children
How does a baby's babble turn into intelligible speech? Are there underlining innate traits that drive language development in children? Or is it the social interaction with others that encourages language development? This lesson will explore these questions and discuss how aspects of language change over time.
9. Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
How does one choose between right and wrong? Are there differences in moral development based on gender? Psychologist Carol Gilligan proposed a theory that highlights the differences between male and female moral development.
10. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
How do people learn to make morally sound decisions? To illustrate Kohlberg's levels of moral development, we'll follow Lauren as she makes difficult decisions.
11. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Education: Definition, Theory & Examples
In this lesson, we will explore what a self-fulfilling prophecy is and how it affects our mindset, behavior, and those around us. We will examine how teachers create self-fulfilling prophecies with their students and how to move past them.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Special Education (5354): Practice & Study Guide course
- Cognitive Influences on Learning
- How Disability & Developmental Delay Can Affect Learning
- Learning Theory
- Students with Individual Disabilities, Disorders & Impairments
- Meeting Individual Children's Needs
- Student Learning and Motivation
- Instructional Strategies
- Intervention & Transition Strategies for Special Education
- Adaptive & Assistive Technology in the Classroom
- Learning Assessments
- Foundations & Professional Responsibilities
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