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- The perinatal and neonatal environments
- Normal and abnormal fetal positions
- Childbirth methods
- Premature births and related complications
- Three stages of labor
- Newborns' reflexes
- Multiple births
1. The Perinatal Environment and Potential Hazards During the Birth Process
The perinatal environment is the time and place before and after birth and some complications can occur during this process. Learn about pre-labor, the stages of labor, recovery, and potential hazards during the birth process.
2. The Neonatal Environment: Definition & Apgar Test
The neonatal environment is the surroundings in which a newborn baby spends the first month after being born. Learn about the definition of the neonatal environment, explore the significance of the Apgar test and discover the five conditions it evaluates in newborns during the first few minutes after birth.
3. Fetal Dystocia: Normal and Abnormal Fetal Positions Prior to Childbirth
While most cases of childbirth proceed normally, up to 20% may encounter some type of difficulty due to dystocia, or abnormal fetal size and/or position. Learn more about normal fetal positions as well as abnormal fetal presentations, including: facing forward, face presentation, shoulder dystocia, transverse position, breech presentation, feet first, and frank breech.
4. Childbirth: The Role of Hormones in Labor and Delivery
During childbirth, hormones relay signals from the fetus to the mother to initiate labor. Learn about the process of labor and delivery (initiation, continuation, and end of labor), the role of hormones in childbirth, and the function of positive feedback loop.
5. Childbirth Methods: Natural Delivery, Medicated Delivery & C-Section
Childbirth methods are among the most pressing thoughts on the minds of expectant parents. Discover the benefits and risks of the most popular delivery procedures: natural, medicated, C-section.
6. Premature Births and Associated Complications
Babies born more than three weeks early are considered to be premature births; however, the chances of the child surviving are higher than with immature births. Learn about the differences between immature and premature babies, the main causes of premature labor, and the complications associated with premature babies, such as breathing, heart, and metabolism problems.
7. The Three Stages of Labor: Dilation, Expulsion & Placental
The process of labor and delivery is divided into stages, with the end goal of parturition, or the forcible expulsion of the fetus from the mother's uterus. Learn more about the three stages of labor. including the dilation, expulsion, and placental stages.
8. Childbirth Issues: Cultural Differences, Low Birth Weight & Injuries
Women going through childbirth may face many different types of issues in the delivery room. Explore how cultural differences must be respected during the birthing process, and then learn how low birth weight and birth injuries can threaten the health of a mother or her infant.
9. The Neonatal Period: Changes During the First Month of Life
The development of a baby's internal systems doesn't stop with birth and can continue throughout the neonatal period. Learn about some of the main changes that occur during the first month of a baby's life, which include changes in the lungs, heart, digestive and excretory systems, and the thermoregulation process.
10. The Neonatal Environment: Definition & Assessment
The surroundings that a newborn child encounters comprise the neonatal environment. Learn how nurses and other clinicians assess a baby's health through the APGAR Assessment and the meaning of the acronym, the purpose of the Brazelton Scale, and understand why the neonatal environment must be kept meticulously clean.
11. Identifying the Reflexes of Newborns
Newborns thrive on reflexes, instinctive reactions that keep them safe, and doctors use tests to determine the function of such reflexes. Discover the function of the nervous system in reactions, details in feeding reflexes, and how they are identified.
12. Multiple Births: Symptoms, Difficulties & Types
Around one in every 30 babies born in the United States is a twin, but only one in every 250 births is an identical twin. Learn about the types of multiple births, the risks associated with multiple births, and factors that increase the chances of having twins.
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