About This Chapter
Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.1)
About This Chapter
After watching these videos, students will gain strength in their ability to understand and interpret information from primary and secondary sources. They will be able to cite this information for use in their own assertions. The videos in this chapter explain:
- How to make inferences
- Methods for extracting conclusions
- How to interpret generalized statements
- Ways to cite evidence from text in support of analysis
As students build competence in this area, they will, with minimal effort, synthesize information from sources into their own copy as evidence supporting their arguments. They should be able to explain the process they used to extract that information, maintain the source intent, and apply it to their own analysis.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
These lessons are incredibly flexible for many classroom uses. Here are a few ideas on how you might do that.
Wherefore art thou Romeo?
Sometimes it is easy to capture an author's intended meaning, other times analysis of language, culture, and context are necessary to eke out that intent. After watching the video on inference, give students a list of quotes, in context, from historic texts: some of which mean exactly what they appear to mean, and others which have a slightly different meaning than one might expect due to a change in language or a tricky word like 'wherefore' ('why'). Another example is Jane Austen's use of 'compliment' in chapter 27 of her novel Emma, where there appears to be a contradiction between her saying something nice and then suggesting it 'was no compliment . . . .' Have the students decide which excerpts mean what they seem to say and which ones mean something different.
Never say never
In a twist on the first suggestion, watch the video on interpreting generalizations and then provide a practical exercise wherein you provide a list of excerpts that contain broad generalizations. The students should be able to describe both what the author really meant and why they chose to make the generalization rather than be precise.
Have your students watch each video in this chapter as homework (reminding them that they will be able to fit the videos anywhere in their schedule since they are short and can be viewed on mobile devices). They can complete the self-correcting lesson quizzes to get an idea of how well they understood the related lesson and whether they need to go back and review part of it. Assign the chapter test homework or proctor it in class to measure understanding and synthesis of key concepts.
1. What is Inference? - How to Infer Intended Meaning
In this lesson, we will define the terms inference and intended meaning. We will then discuss what steps to take when making inferences in literature.
2. How to Draw Conclusions from a Passage
You might be able to understand everything the author says in a passage, but can you figure out what the author ISN'T saying? Try your hand at drawing conclusions - but not jumping to conclusions - in this video lesson.
3. How to Interpret Generalizations of a Passage
Do you know what a generalization is? Do you know how to spot a misleading generalization when you see one, or make generalizations about different aspects of a passage? Watch this video lesson to gain or improve skills.
4. Citing Textual Evidence to Support Analysis of the Text
This lesson will discuss what textual evidence is and why it is important to use it when analyzing a text. We will also discuss ways to cite textual evidence when analyzing a text to better support your claims.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Informational Text Grades 9-10: Standards course
- Informational Text for Common Core ELA - Informational Text 9-10
- Central Idea & Summarizing: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.2
- Nonfiction Analysis: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.3
- Word Choice & Tone: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.4
- Figurative & Technical Language: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.4
- Idea Development: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.5
- Author's Purpose & Point of View: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.6
- Accounts in Different Mediums: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.7
- Argumentative Texts: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.8
- Analyzing Seminal U.S. Documents: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.9