About This Chapter
Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Medical professionals use a variety of clinical tests to detect blood disorders and diseases. Video lessons in this chapter look at many of these procedures alongside the conditions abnormal test results may indicate. Instructors also elaborate on the causes of common types of anemia. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Normal values for blood electrolyte levels
- Healthy red and white blood cell counts
- Indices of red blood cell size
- Plasma protein and platelet tests
|Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Sodium||Discusses the normal reference range of values for sodium electrolytes. Gives some examples of what would cause these values to increase or decrease.|
|Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Chloride||Provides examples of conditions causing chloride levels to fluctuate and explains the normal reference range for these electrolyte values.|
|Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Potassium||Contrasts the normal reference range for potassium values with the types of increases or decreases indicative of disease.|
|Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Calcium||Outlines causes of increasing or decreasing calcium levels and provides the normal reference range for calcium electrolyte values.|
|Important Proteins and Their Flux in the Blood and Urine||Identifies the functions of albumin and hemoglobin as well as plasma proteins in general. Explains causes of proteinuria.|
|Red Blood Cells: Important Measurements||Outlines blood cell indices, such as MCV, MCH, MCHC, red blood cell counts and reticulocyte counts. Pinpoints their uses to diagnose such diseases as anemia and polycythemia.|
|Macrocytic Anemia: Definition and Causes||Describes causes and indications of a blood disorder characterized by enlarged red blood cells.|
|Normocytic Anemia: Definition and Causes||Identifies symptoms and causes associated with a type of anemia common among older adults.|
|Microcytic Anemia: Definition and Causes||Examines a type of anemia characterized by hypochromic red blood cells and pinpoints its causes.|
|CBC Test: White Blood Cells||Describes healthy levels of total white blood cells as well as neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Explains how viruses, bacteria, and parasites can cause an increase or decrease in these levels.|
|Platelets and Coagulation Tests||Discusses the PT, PTT, d-dimer, and antithrombin III tests used to diagnose clotting and platelet disorders.|
1. Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Sodium
This lesson discusses the electrolyte sodium. We will go over what it is, why it's important, and what may cause the relative levels of sodium to increase or decrease in the body.
2. Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Chloride
This lesson will discuss the importance of the chloride ion in diagnostic testing. You'll learn in which major conditions it can be elevated or decreased in the serum.
3. Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Potassium
This lesson will discuss hyperkalemia and hypokalemia as well as what may cause either one. We will also cover the dangers associated with increased levels of potassium in our body.
4. Major Electrolyte Levels in the Blood: Calcium
This lesson will discuss some major causes of increased and decreased levels of calcium in our body as well as the important signs and symptoms that may occur as a result.
5. Important Proteins and Their Flux in the Blood and Urine
This lesson will discuss two types of protein found in your blood, known as albumin and hemoglobin. We will discuss what their increases or decreases in the blood or urine may indicate in a person.
6. Red Blood Cells: Important Measurements
This lesson will discuss many red blood cell related values found on a complete blood count, including RBC, Reticulocytes, Hct, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RDW, as well as their importance.
7. Macrocytic Anemia: Definition and Causes
This lesson will go over the different types and causes of macrocytic anemia. This will include a discussion of something known as megaloblastic anemia as well.
8. Normocytic Anemia: Definition and Causes
This lesson will discuss the major and interesting causes of normocytic anemia. Using terms such as RDW, MCV, and anemia of chronic disease you'll gain an appreciation for why normocytic anemia may occur.
9. Microcytic Anemia: Definition and Causes
This lesson explores microcytic anemia as well as two possible causes: iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia. We will also discuss important bloodwork values such as MCV and MCHC.
10. CBC Test: White Blood Cells
This lesson will discuss the white blood cell count, which cells comprise it, and what important things may cause their levels to elevate or decrease. We'll also cover something known as a left shift.
11. Platelets and Coagulation Tests
This lesson will discuss three major tests related to coagulation: platelet count, PT, and PTT. We'll also look at how to interpret these tests together in order to figure out what disease process may be occurring.
12. Neutrophils: Definition & Function
Even though there are germs all around us all the time, we rarely get sick. That's because our immune system is constantly on guard, protecting us from infections. In this lesson, learn about neutrophils, the first responders of the immune system.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
- Metabolic Derangements
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health