About This Chapter
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How are glucose levels in the blood and urine measured?
- What are some key kidney and liver test values?
- How do pulmonary function tests work?
- Why are cardiac enzymes so important?
- What are the major neurological tests?
1. Glucose Levels in the Blood and Urine
This lesson will discuss hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucosuria as well as the major causes for each one of these test results. This means we'll touch base upon endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's and diabetes mellitus.
2. Urine Test Types: pH, Ketones, Proteins, and Cells
This lesson will discuss the major findings resulting from the measurement of urine pH, ketones, proteins, white blood cells, and red blood cells. Including how diet and disease influence these values.
3. Crystals in Urine: Meaning and Causes
This lesson will go over some of the major types of crystals that can be found in urine, what they look like, and why they may occur. Find out as we take a look at uric acid, struvite, cystine, sulfur, and calcium oxalate crystals.
4. Urine Specific Gravity: Normal Range, Fluctuations, and Causes
This lesson will discuss a test known as urine specific gravity. You'll learn the normal values of urine specific gravity as well as the major causes of its abnormal elevation or decrease.
5. Kidney Function Test Values: BUN and Creatinine
This lesson will discuss two important measurements related to kidney function, called BUN and creatinine. We'll discuss when they may be increased or decreased and why.
6. Bilirubin & Urobilinogen: Definition & Symptoms
This lesson will discuss an important yellow colored pigment known as bilirubin, where it comes from, and how it plays an important role in helping to diagnose disease.
7. Important Liver Values: Albumin, ALT, ALP & AST
This lesson will discuss three important enzymes that indicate liver or biliary tree issues. They are ALT, ALP, and AST. We'll talk about some of the reasons why they may be elevated.
8. Arterial Blood Gas and Acid Base Balance: Tests and Interpretation
This lesson will discuss what the arterial blood gas test is and how it is used to interpret acid/base balance in your body. You'll learn about partial pressures, hypercapnia, acidemia, and alkalosis.
9. Measuring Blood Oxygen Levels
This lesson will discuss three important values relating oxygen information in our blood. These values are the partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation, and oxygen content of blood.
10. What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?
Pulmonary function tests are used to measure air movement into and out of the lungs. Spirometry is the most common way to measure airflow. This lesson will describe the use of spirometry to measure lung volumes and flow rates as well as how breathing disorders are diagnosed.
11. The Importance of Cardiac Enzymes
This lesson discusses the importance of two markers of heart disease that can be measured via the blood. They are creatine kinase and troponin, and we'll discuss what may cause their levels in the blood to increase.
12. Neurological Tests of Major Importance
This lesson will talk about how altered states of consciousness are assessed in individuals with serious brain trauma. We will also discuss two signs that may indicate meningitis in a patient.
13. Oxalate: Definition, Foods & Formula
In this lesson we will learn about oxalate. We will learn why it is important in plants and the problems it can cause in humans. We will also learn about the structure of oxalate and how this structure affects calcium.
14. Pigments: Definition, Types & Effect
The beautiful shades of green in plants, the blue color of your jeans, or that splash of red paint on your bedroom wall all have one thing in common: pigments. Read on to discover the chemistry of pigments, their different types, and their effect in the environment.
15. What is a Benign Tumor? - Definition, Types & Examples
Chances are, you've heard the terms ''benign'' and ''malignant'' in reference to tumors, but what do these words mean? Read this lesson to learn more about benign tumors.
16. What is a Malignant Tumor? - Definition & Treatment
Have you ever wondered what it means to have a malignant tumor? In this lesson, you will learn the definition of malignant tumors and learn about some treatment options.
17. What Is Uric Acid? - Levels, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will explain the definition of uric acid and how it is generated inside of the body based on foods consumed in a person's normal diet. It will also discuss causes and symptoms of increased uric levels.
18. ACTH Stimulation Test: Protocol & Side Effects
The field of medicine is full of acronyms, and it can be confusing to try to keep them all straight. This lesson will explain what ACTH is and what it does. Then we'll talk about the ACTH stimulation test and how it works.
19. How to Interpret the ACTH Stimulation Test
First this lesson will review how and why an ACTH stimulation test is performed. Then, interpretations of high or low values, as well as limitations of the test will be discussed.
20. Renal & Biliary Drug Excretion: Definition & Process
There are many ways in which the body gets rid of drugs. In this lesson, we will focus on the kidneys and liver, and the roles that these organs play in drug excretion.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology: Help and Review course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology: Help and Review
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System: Help and Review
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia: Help and Review
- Skin-Related Pathology: Help and Review
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System: Help and Review
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System: Help and Review
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects: Help and Review
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Help and Review
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Diseases of the Urinary System: Help and Review
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System: Help and Review
- Metabolic Derangements: Help and Review
- Blood Disorders - Anemia: Help and Review
- Hematological Maladies: Help and Review
- Blood Cancers: Help and Review
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System: Help and Review
- Reproductive System Disorders: Help and Review
- Clinical Test Results - Cells and Blood Proteins: Help and Review
- Clinical Tests for Electrolyte Levels