About This Chapter
Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Lessons in this chapter can help you discover the clinical procedures used to diagnose disease and detect organ malfunction. Instructors outline the normal reference ranges of the body's enzyme, protein and glucose levels (among others) and discuss the indications of abnormal test results. After completing this chapter, you should be able to identify:
- Tests assessing urine and blood values
- Byproducts of healthy kidney function
- Clinical indicators of pancreas and liver health
- Normal blood gas and lung volume levels
- Cardiac markers and neurological function tests
|Glucose Levels in the Blood and Urine||Outlines the normal reference range of values for glucose in the blood and urine. Provides some examples of what would cause these values to increase or decrease and explains why.|
|Urine Test Types: pH, Ketones, Proteins, and Cells||Discusses normal urine pH as well as the typical range of white and red blood cell counts. Describes normal protein and ketone levels.|
|Crystals in Urine: Meaning and Causes||Describes the most common types of crystals, what they look like and what they might signify in terms of kidney disease.|
|Electrolytes in Urine: Normal Lab Values and Causes of Change||Examines causes of an increase or decrease in urine electrolyte levels.|
|Urine Specific Gravity: Normal Range, Fluctuations, and Causes||Explains the normal range of urine specific gravity. Discusses metabolic and kidney diseases that may cause this value to increase or decrease.|
|Kidney Function Test Values: BUN and Creatinine||Identifies where these two substances come from and explains why they're used as indicators of kidney function. Elaborates on how they increase or decrease as kidney disease progresses from one stage or condition to another.|
|Bilirubin & Urobilinogen: Definition & Symptoms||Discusses bilirubin and urobilinogen. Explains what total bilirubin is as well as signs, symptoms and causes of its increase or decrease. Pinpoints instances when test results would show more unconjugated or conjugated bilirubin levels.|
|Important Liver Values: Albumin, ALT, ALP & AST||Describes fluctuations of liver values caused by Cushing's disease, pancreatitis and bone disease. Identifies the relationship between sequelae and hypoalbuminemia and discusses how albumin levels can indicate kidney disease.|
|Amylase and Pancreatic Lipase: Causes & Associated Conditions||Ascertains causes of increase in amylase and lipase and their associated conditions.|
|Arterial Blood Gas and Acid Base Balance: Tests and Interpretation||Explores causes of hypoxemia, hypoxia, hypercapnia and ventilation perfusion mismatch. Assesses their clinical effect on arterial blood gas test results.|
|Measuring Blood Oxygen Levels||Surveys the test methods used to measure blood oxygen levels as well as indications of their results.|
|What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?||Outlines the uses of spirometry to assess lung ventilation and diagnose restrictive and obstructive breathing disorders.|
|The Importance of Cardiac Enzymes||Discusses cardiac markers such as troponin and creatine kinase and their importance in diagnosing certain conditions.|
|Neurological Tests of Major Importance||Explains the applications of the Glasgow Coma Scale and brain stem function tests.|
1. Glucose Levels in the Blood and Urine
This lesson will discuss hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucosuria as well as the major causes for each one of these test results. This means we'll touch base upon endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's and diabetes mellitus.
2. Urine Test Types: pH, Ketones, Proteins, and Cells
This lesson will discuss the major findings resulting from the measurement of urine pH, ketones, proteins, white blood cells, and red blood cells. Including how diet and disease influence these values.
3. Crystals in Urine: Meaning and Causes
This lesson will go over some of the major types of crystals that can be found in urine, what they look like, and why they may occur. Find out as we take a look at uric acid, struvite, cystine, sulfur, and calcium oxalate crystals.
4. Electrolytes in Urine: Normal Lab Values and Causes of Change
This lesson will discuss four major electrolytes that are found in your blood. But we'll be discussing the significance of finding more or less than normal amounts of them in your urine.
5. Urine Specific Gravity: Normal Range, Fluctuations, and Causes
This lesson will discuss a test known as urine specific gravity. You'll learn the normal values of urine specific gravity as well as the major causes of its abnormal elevation or decrease.
6. Kidney Function Test Values: BUN and Creatinine
This lesson will discuss two important measurements related to kidney function, called BUN and creatinine. We'll discuss when they may be increased or decreased and why.
7. Bilirubin & Urobilinogen: Definition & Symptoms
This lesson will discuss an important yellow colored pigment known as bilirubin, where it comes from, and how it plays an important role in helping to diagnose disease.
8. Important Liver Values: Albumin, ALT, ALP & AST
This lesson will discuss three important enzymes that indicate liver or biliary tree issues. They are ALT, ALP, and AST. We'll talk about some of the reasons why they may be elevated.
9. Amylase and Pancreatic Lipase: Causes & Associated Conditions
This lesson will focus in on two important enzymes produced by the pancreas known as amylase and lipase. We'll discuss what their elevations during blood tests may indicate.
10. Arterial Blood Gas and Acid Base Balance: Tests and Interpretation
This lesson will discuss what the arterial blood gas test is and how it is used to interpret acid/base balance in your body. You'll learn about partial pressures, hypercapnia, acidemia, and alkalosis.
11. Measuring Blood Oxygen Levels
This lesson will discuss three important values relating oxygen information in our blood. These values are the partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation, and oxygen content of blood.
12. What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?
Pulmonary function tests are used to measure air movement into and out of the lungs. Spirometry is the most common way to measure airflow. This lesson will describe the use of spirometry to measure lung volumes and flow rates as well as how breathing disorders are diagnosed.
13. The Importance of Cardiac Enzymes
This lesson discusses the importance of two markers of heart disease that can be measured via the blood. They are creatine kinase and troponin, and we'll discuss what may cause their levels in the blood to increase.
14. Neurological Tests of Major Importance
This lesson will talk about how altered states of consciousness are assessed in individuals with serious brain trauma. We will also discuss two signs that may indicate meningitis in a patient.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
- Metabolic Derangements
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins