About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college psychology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn college psychology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding intelligence or working with memory
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning psychology (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about cognition
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra psychology learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Cognition chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Cognition chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any cognition question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What are the biological bases for creativity and intelligence?
- How do human beings acquire language and process information?
- What can I improve my long-term and short-term memory?
- How do memories become distorted?
1. Studying Intelligence: History, Psychologists & Theories
We all want to be smart in one way or another, but what exactly is general intelligence? This lesson takes a look at the possible factors behind intellectual development and how this controversial topic has been examined by psychologists.
2. History of Intelligence Testing in Psychology
Throughout the years, there have been many methods used that attempted to accurately quantify and measure human intelligence. You've probably heard of or taken an IQ test, but what does an IQ test actually measure? Find out in this lesson.
3. Studying Intelligence: Biological vs. Environmental Factors
Have you ever wondered if your intelligence is entirely due to genetics or if it's shaped by the environment surrounding you? In this lesson, you'll learn about the factors that affect and influence a person's intelligence.
4. What is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Which types of intelligence do you identify with? As you watch this video on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, you'll learn that intelligence can be a diverse concept not limited to one area.
5. Analytical Intelligence, Divergent Thinking & Creativity
Some people tend to think more analytically, while some are creative thinkers by nature. Is creativity an important skill for solving problems? In this lesson, we'll learn the differences between creative and analytical thinking and discover ways to nurture creative thinking.
6. What Is Language?
Have you ever wondered how human language is constructed to form meaning? Why is language more complex than animal calls? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the basic units language and learn how meaning is formed.
7. Language Acquisition: Definition, Theories & Stages
Have you ever wondered how humans are able to learn, process, comprehend and speak a language? In this lesson on language acquisition, we'll take a look at some distinctions between languages and learn how babies come to understand and speak a language.
8. Information Processing: Encoding, Storage & Retrieval
How does your brain remember information and recall it later? In this lesson, you'll look at the steps your brain takes as it processes data from short-term memory and stores it as long-term memory.
9. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
10. Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing
Are you a big-picture person or do you get caught up in the details? Explore two ways that you can use your cognitive resources to focus your attention. This lesson provides both the details and the big picture for top-down and bottom-up processing.
11. George Miller's Psychological Study to Improve Short-Term Memory
Wouldn't it be nice to improve your short-term memory? According to one psychological study, there are, in fact, ways you can organize sets of new information to make them easier to remember. Based on the study, this lesson examines a method that can increase your short-term memory.
12. Using Psychology to Improve Long-Term Memory
What are some tips for improving your memory? This memorable lesson on memory covers self-referencing, mnemonic devices, spaced repetition and rehearsal. You won't want to cram for exams once you learn these better ways to improve your long-term memory!
13. Memory Distortion: Source Amnesia, Misinformation Effect & Choice-Supportive Bias
With all the information we learn and process every day, it can be difficult to remember things accurately. Because of this, our memory can become distorted. In this lesson, we'll learn how our brain can trick us into falsely remembering details of our past experiences.
14. Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate
Did you know that our brain uses strategies to process information and draw conclusions? Although we're able to reach conclusions through these mental strategies, sometimes, our reasoning can be off. Read on to discover how our brain draws these conclusions and why they can be wrong.
15. Sensory Memory: Definition, Examples & Types
In this lesson, you will learn about sensory memory, how it relates to other types of memory, and two specific types of sensory memory called echoic and iconic memory.
16. Cognition: Theory, Overview
Studying the mental processes known as cognition can make it easier to understand human knowledge and behavior. Explore cognition theory in this lesson and then test your understanding with a quiz.
17. Episodic Memory: Definition & Examples
Episodic memory is the memory of personal experiences and specific events, including location, time, and emotions. Learn about episodic memory through examples, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
18. Iconic Memory: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about a specific type of memory called iconic memory. Following completion of this lesson, you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
19. Kinesthetic Intelligence: Definition & Explanation
What do Florence Griffith-Joyner, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Britney Spears all have in common? They all have bodily/kinesthetic intelligence. Learn more about bodily/kinesthetic intelligence from examples, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
20. Logical Thinking: Definition & Process
Logical thinking is a process of clearly moving from one related thought to another. In this lesson, you will examine the definition and process of logical thinking, and then you'll get to test your knowledge with a quiz.
21. Naturalist Intelligence: Definition & Explanation
Dr. Howard Gardner came up with the theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. He took a different approach to defining intelligence, suggesting that people could be smart in a number of different ways. We'll focus on his concept of naturalist intelligence in this lesson.
22. Practical Thinking: Definition & Examples
Practical thinking involves adapting to your environment. In this lesson, learn more about what practical thinking means as well as look at some real-world examples.
23. Predictive Validity in Psychology: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn to define predictive validity and learn about how it can be used in practical settings. Following completion of this lesson, you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
24. Rorschach Test: Definition, History & Interpretation
The Rorschach test is a psychological test consisting of ten inkblots that a test taker is asked to interpret. In this lesson, we will discuss the test's history and how Exner's Comprehensive System became the standard for scoring and interpretation.
25. Sir Francis Galton: Intelligence, Eugenics & Fingerprints
During his time, Sir Francis Galton was a very influential anthropologist and explorer who inspired much research on complex ideas such as intelligence and heredity. Read on to learn more about this important yet controversial figure who was the cousin of Charles Darwin.
26. Speech Delays in Toddlers & Children: Types & Examples
Did you know that over 7 percent of children in the United States have some type of speech delay? In this lesson, you'll learn more about the different types of speech delays from examples.
27. Speech Disfluencies: Definition & Types
Speech disfluencies are breaks or interruptions in speech that affect the flow of words. In this lesson, learn more about the different types of speech disfluencies from examples.
28. Ulric Neisser and Cognitive Psychology: Overview
In this lesson, you'll learn more about the work of Ulric Neisser and the limitations of human information processing with phenomena like inattentional blindness and flashbulb memory. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
29. What Is Short-Term Memory: Definition & Causes for Memory Loss
In this lesson, you will learn what short-term memory is. You will also learn how it relates to other types of memory, including sensory, working, and long-term memory. Then learn about some common reasons for short-term memory loss.
30. What is Speech Impairment? - Definition, Causes & Characteristics
Did you know that millions of people in the United States have some type of speech impairment? Learn more about the different types of speech impairment, their causes, and the characteristics associated with impaired speech in this lesson.
31. What is Metacognition in Psychology? - Definition & Examples
Have you ever stopped to think about your thoughts? Sounds kind of deep, right? But actually, being metacognitive can help people with memory and awareness. Want to know how? Read on.
32. What is Parallel Processing? - Definition & Model
Our brains are amazing machines that can juggle many pieces of information at the same time. Not only that, but these processes work together to keep us alive and kicking. This lesson takes a closer look at parallel processing.
33. Brown-Peterson Task: Technique & Procedure
When you hear the words Brown-Peterson you may think of a law firm. Turns out it's a cool exercise to test memory. Want to learn more about it and give it a shot? Read on for details.
34. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Examples and Definition
Did you know that the way we speak and use words can determine how we see the world? Find out how in this lesson about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which also includes some thought-provoking examples. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
35. Memory Consolidation: Definition & Theory
Every moment of our lives the brain works hard to remember the things we experience. In this article we will learn about memory consolidation. Take a quiz after the lesson to test your own short-term memory.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Intro to Psychology: Help and Review course
- History and Approaches in Psychology: Help and Review
- Biological Bases of Behavior: Help and Review
- Sensation and Perception: Help and Review
- States of Consciousness: Help and Review
- Learning: Help and Review
- Motivation and Emotion: Help and Review
- Developmental Psychology: Help and Review
- Personality: Help and Review
- Social Psychology Topics: Help and Review
- Psychological Disorders and Health: Help and Review
- Psychological Treatments: Help and Review
- Statistics, Tests and Measurement in Psychology: Help and Review
- Neurological Treatment for Psychological Issues