About This Chapter
Cognition in Psychology - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter can help you enhance your understanding of cognition in psychology, including language acquisition, categorizing memory, and memory distortion. You'll also have the opportunity to learn about the biological influences on intelligence, the differences between creative and divergent thinking and the different types of heuristics with the help of these short, yet entertaining, videos. By the end of this chapter you should be able to:
- Understand the definition of intelligence and history of intelligence testing
- Explain multiple intelligences
- Recall what language is and how it is acquired
- Distinguish the difference between top-down and bottom-up processing
- Explain how short term and long term memory can be improved
- Describe how memory is categorized
- Identify what happens when memory is distorted
Every lesson is taught by professional instructors and is accompanied by a self-assessment quiz that allows you to fully test your knowledge of the topics in this chapter. The chapter test can be taken before or after you review the lessons, and it can be taken as many times as you need to take it.
1. Studying Intelligence: History, Psychologists & Theories
We all want to be smart in one way or another, but what exactly is general intelligence? This lesson takes a look at the possible factors behind intellectual development and how this controversial topic has been examined by psychologists.
2. History of Intelligence Testing in Psychology
Throughout the years, there have been many methods used that attempted to accurately quantify and measure human intelligence. You've probably heard of or taken an IQ test, but what does an IQ test actually measure? Find out in this lesson.
3. Studying Intelligence: Biological vs. Environmental Factors
Have you ever wondered if your intelligence is entirely due to genetics or if it's shaped by the environment surrounding you? In this lesson, you'll learn about the factors that affect and influence a person's intelligence.
4. What is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Which types of intelligence do you identify with? As you watch this video on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, you'll learn that intelligence can be a diverse concept not limited to one area.
5. Analytical Intelligence, Divergent Thinking & Creativity
Some people tend to think more analytically, while some are creative thinkers by nature. Is creativity an important skill for solving problems? In this lesson, we'll learn the differences between creative and analytical thinking and discover ways to nurture creative thinking.
6. What Is Language?
Have you ever wondered how human language is constructed to form meaning? Why is language more complex than animal calls? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the basic units language and learn how meaning is formed.
7. Language Acquisition: Definition, Theories & Stages
Have you ever wondered how humans are able to learn, process, comprehend and speak a language? In this lesson on language acquisition, we'll take a look at some distinctions between languages and learn how babies come to understand and speak a language.
8. Information Processing: Encoding, Storage & Retrieval
How does your brain remember information and recall it later? In this lesson, you'll look at the steps your brain takes as it processes data from short-term memory and stores it as long-term memory.
9. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
10. Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing
Are you a big-picture person or do you get caught up in the details? Explore two ways that you can use your cognitive resources to focus your attention. This lesson provides both the details and the big picture for top-down and bottom-up processing.
11. George Miller's Psychological Study to Improve Short-Term Memory
Wouldn't it be nice to improve your short-term memory? According to one psychological study, there are, in fact, ways you can organize sets of new information to make them easier to remember. Based on the study, this lesson examines a method that can increase your short-term memory.
12. Using Psychology to Improve Long-Term Memory
What are some tips for improving your memory? This memorable lesson on memory covers self-referencing, mnemonic devices, spaced repetition and rehearsal. You won't want to cram for exams once you learn these better ways to improve your long-term memory!
13. Memory Distortion: Source Amnesia, Misinformation Effect & Choice-Supportive Bias
With all the information we learn and process every day, it can be difficult to remember things accurately. Because of this, our memory can become distorted. In this lesson, we'll learn how our brain can trick us into falsely remembering details of our past experiences.
14. Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate
Did you know that our brain uses strategies to process information and draw conclusions? Although we're able to reach conclusions through these mental strategies, sometimes, our reasoning can be off. Read on to discover how our brain draws these conclusions and why they can be wrong.
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Other chapters within the ILTS Social Science - Psychology (248): Test Practice and Study Guide course
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